Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Yhojan Rodríguez, Christopher Chang, Diana C. González-Bravo, M. Eric Gershwin, Juan Manuel Anaya

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune acute peripheral polyneuropathy, which often follows an infectious process. The most common microorganisms associated with GBS are the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Viruses such as cytomegalovirus and the Zika virus have also been associated with GBS. The incidence of GBS ranges between 0.5 and 2 cases per 100,000 population per year. The pathophysiology of GBS most likely involves molecular mimicry, in which an autoantibody against a microorganism cross-reacts with host molecules, such as GD1a, GM1, and GM1/GD1 complex located at the terminal nerves and anterior roots, and GQ1b located on oculomotor nerves and primary sensory neurons. The classical complement system has also been implicated in facilitating the development of GBS. GBS usually presents with numbness, paresthesia, and progressive weakness, but there are several clinical variants, including acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAM), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), a pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant, a paraparetic variant, and others. Treatment of GBS mostly targets the immune response through the use of IVIg, plasma exchange, and other forms of immunomodulatory therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationContemporary Clinical Neuroscience
PublisherSpringer Nature
Pages711-736
Number of pages26
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Publication series

NameContemporary Clinical Neuroscience
ISSN (Print)2627-535X
ISSN (Electronic)2627-5341

Keywords

  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
  • Acute motor axonal neuropathy
  • Complement
  • Genetics
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Immunotherapy
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins
  • Major histocompatibility complex
  • Molecular mimicry
  • Plasma exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology

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