GSTM1 and GSTM5 Genetic Polymorphisms and Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Allan A. Hunter, Zeljka McBride, Rachel Anderson, Matthew H. Bordbari, Gui Shuang Ying, Esther S Kim, Susanna Soon Chun Park, David G. Telander, Joshua L. Dunaief, Leonard M Hjelmeland, Lawrence S Morse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Previously, two cytosolic antioxidant enzymes, Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) and Mu 5 (GSTM5), were reduced in retinas with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study compared genomic copy number variations (gCNV) of these two antioxidant enzymes in AMD versus controls.Methods: Genomic copy number (gCN) assays were performed using Taqman Gene Copy Number Assays (Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany) in technical quadruplicate for both GSTM1 and GSTM5. Peripheral leukocyte RNA levels were compared with controls in technical triplicates. Statistical comparisons were performed in SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).Results: A large percentage of patients in both AMD and age-matched control groups had no copies of GSTM1 (0/0). The mean gCN of GSTM1 was 1.40 (range 0-4) and 1.61 (range 0-5) for AMD and control, respectively (p = 0.29). A greater percentage of control patients had > 3 gCNs of GSTM1 compared with AMD, respectively (15.3% versus 3.0%, p = 0.004). The gCN of GSTM5 was 2 in all samples except one control sample. The relative quantification of GSTM1 and GSTM5 mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in patients showed significant differences in relative expression in AMD versus control (p < 0.05). Peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA and gCN were not significantly correlated (p = 0.27).Conclusion: Since high copy numbers of GSTM1 are found more frequently in controls than in AMD, it is possible that high copy number leads to increased retinal antioxidant defense. Genomic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTM5 do not significantly affect the peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410-416
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 3 2016

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Macular Degeneration
Genetic Polymorphisms
Glutathione Transferase
Leukocytes
Antioxidants
Messenger RNA
Gene Dosage
Enzymes
Germany
Retina

Keywords

  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • expression repression
  • genomic copy number
  • glutathione-S-transferase
  • oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

GSTM1 and GSTM5 Genetic Polymorphisms and Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. / Hunter, Allan A.; McBride, Zeljka; Anderson, Rachel; Bordbari, Matthew H.; Ying, Gui Shuang; Kim, Esther S; Park, Susanna Soon Chun; Telander, David G.; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Hjelmeland, Leonard M; Morse, Lawrence S.

In: Current Eye Research, Vol. 41, No. 3, 03.03.2016, p. 410-416.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hunter, Allan A. ; McBride, Zeljka ; Anderson, Rachel ; Bordbari, Matthew H. ; Ying, Gui Shuang ; Kim, Esther S ; Park, Susanna Soon Chun ; Telander, David G. ; Dunaief, Joshua L. ; Hjelmeland, Leonard M ; Morse, Lawrence S. / GSTM1 and GSTM5 Genetic Polymorphisms and Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. In: Current Eye Research. 2016 ; Vol. 41, No. 3. pp. 410-416.
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abstract = "Purpose: Previously, two cytosolic antioxidant enzymes, Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) and Mu 5 (GSTM5), were reduced in retinas with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study compared genomic copy number variations (gCNV) of these two antioxidant enzymes in AMD versus controls.Methods: Genomic copy number (gCN) assays were performed using Taqman Gene Copy Number Assays (Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany) in technical quadruplicate for both GSTM1 and GSTM5. Peripheral leukocyte RNA levels were compared with controls in technical triplicates. Statistical comparisons were performed in SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).Results: A large percentage of patients in both AMD and age-matched control groups had no copies of GSTM1 (0/0). The mean gCN of GSTM1 was 1.40 (range 0-4) and 1.61 (range 0-5) for AMD and control, respectively (p = 0.29). A greater percentage of control patients had > 3 gCNs of GSTM1 compared with AMD, respectively (15.3{\%} versus 3.0{\%}, p = 0.004). The gCN of GSTM5 was 2 in all samples except one control sample. The relative quantification of GSTM1 and GSTM5 mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in patients showed significant differences in relative expression in AMD versus control (p < 0.05). Peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA and gCN were not significantly correlated (p = 0.27).Conclusion: Since high copy numbers of GSTM1 are found more frequently in controls than in AMD, it is possible that high copy number leads to increased retinal antioxidant defense. Genomic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTM5 do not significantly affect the peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA levels.",
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T1 - GSTM1 and GSTM5 Genetic Polymorphisms and Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

AU - Hunter, Allan A.

AU - McBride, Zeljka

AU - Anderson, Rachel

AU - Bordbari, Matthew H.

AU - Ying, Gui Shuang

AU - Kim, Esther S

AU - Park, Susanna Soon Chun

AU - Telander, David G.

AU - Dunaief, Joshua L.

AU - Hjelmeland, Leonard M

AU - Morse, Lawrence S

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N2 - Purpose: Previously, two cytosolic antioxidant enzymes, Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) and Mu 5 (GSTM5), were reduced in retinas with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study compared genomic copy number variations (gCNV) of these two antioxidant enzymes in AMD versus controls.Methods: Genomic copy number (gCN) assays were performed using Taqman Gene Copy Number Assays (Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany) in technical quadruplicate for both GSTM1 and GSTM5. Peripheral leukocyte RNA levels were compared with controls in technical triplicates. Statistical comparisons were performed in SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).Results: A large percentage of patients in both AMD and age-matched control groups had no copies of GSTM1 (0/0). The mean gCN of GSTM1 was 1.40 (range 0-4) and 1.61 (range 0-5) for AMD and control, respectively (p = 0.29). A greater percentage of control patients had > 3 gCNs of GSTM1 compared with AMD, respectively (15.3% versus 3.0%, p = 0.004). The gCN of GSTM5 was 2 in all samples except one control sample. The relative quantification of GSTM1 and GSTM5 mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in patients showed significant differences in relative expression in AMD versus control (p < 0.05). Peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA and gCN were not significantly correlated (p = 0.27).Conclusion: Since high copy numbers of GSTM1 are found more frequently in controls than in AMD, it is possible that high copy number leads to increased retinal antioxidant defense. Genomic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTM5 do not significantly affect the peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA levels.

AB - Purpose: Previously, two cytosolic antioxidant enzymes, Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) and Mu 5 (GSTM5), were reduced in retinas with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study compared genomic copy number variations (gCNV) of these two antioxidant enzymes in AMD versus controls.Methods: Genomic copy number (gCN) assays were performed using Taqman Gene Copy Number Assays (Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany) in technical quadruplicate for both GSTM1 and GSTM5. Peripheral leukocyte RNA levels were compared with controls in technical triplicates. Statistical comparisons were performed in SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).Results: A large percentage of patients in both AMD and age-matched control groups had no copies of GSTM1 (0/0). The mean gCN of GSTM1 was 1.40 (range 0-4) and 1.61 (range 0-5) for AMD and control, respectively (p = 0.29). A greater percentage of control patients had > 3 gCNs of GSTM1 compared with AMD, respectively (15.3% versus 3.0%, p = 0.004). The gCN of GSTM5 was 2 in all samples except one control sample. The relative quantification of GSTM1 and GSTM5 mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in patients showed significant differences in relative expression in AMD versus control (p < 0.05). Peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA and gCN were not significantly correlated (p = 0.27).Conclusion: Since high copy numbers of GSTM1 are found more frequently in controls than in AMD, it is possible that high copy number leads to increased retinal antioxidant defense. Genomic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTM5 do not significantly affect the peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA levels.

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KW - expression repression

KW - genomic copy number

KW - glutathione-S-transferase

KW - oxidative stress

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