Growth factors and morphogens: Signals for tissue engineering

A Hari Reddi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Tissue engineering is the exciting discipline of design and construction of spare parts for the human body to restore function based on biology and biomedical engineering. e basis of tissue engineering is the triad of signals for tissue induction, responding stem cells, and the scaolding of extracellular matrix. Among the many tissues in the human body, bone has the highest power of regeneration and therefore is a prototype model for tissue engineering based on morphogenesis. Morphogenesis is the developmental cascade of pattern formation, body plan establishment, and culmination of the adult body form. e cascade of bone morphogenesis in the embryo is recapitulated by demineralized bone matrix-induced bone formation. e inductive signals for bone morphogenesis, the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were isolated from demineralized bone matrix. BMPs and related cartilagederived morphogenetic proteins (CDMPs) initiate cartilage and bone formation. e promotion and maintenance of the initiated skeleton is regulated by several growth factors. Tissue engineering is the symbiosis of signals (growth factors and morphogens), stem cells, and scaolds (extracellular matrix). e rules of architecture for tissue engineering are a true imitation of principles of developmental biology and morphogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTissue Engineering
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Practices
PublisherCRC Press
ISBN (Electronic)9781439874035
ISBN (Print)9781439874004
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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