Glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds directly to HVEM, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and a mediator of HSV entry

J. Charles Whitbeck, Charline Peng, Huan Lou, Ruliang Xu, Sharon H. Willis, Manuel Ponce De Leon, Tao Peng, Anthony V. Nicola, Rebecca I. Montgomery, Morgyn S. Warner, Athena Soulika, Lynn A. Spruce, William T. Moore, John D. Lambris, Patricia G. Spear, Gary H. Cohen, Roselyn J. Eisenberg

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230 Scopus citations

Abstract

Glycoprotein D (gD) is a structural component of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) envelope which is essential for virus entry into host cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells are one of the few cell types which are nonpermissive for the entry of many HSV strains. However, when these cells are transformed with the gene for the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), the resulting cells, CHO-HVEM12, are permissive for many HSV strains, such as HSV-1(KOS). By virtue of its four cysteine-rich pseudorepeats, HVEM is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily of proteins. Recombinant forms of gD and HVEM, gD-1(306t) and HVEM(200t), respectively, were used to demonstrate a specific physical interaction between these two proteins. This interaction was dependent on native gl) conformation but independent of its N-linked oligosaccharides, as expected from previous structure-function studies. Recombinant forms of gD derived from HSV- 1(KOS)rid 1 and HSV-1(ANG) did not bind to HVEM(200t), explaining the inability of these viruses to infect CHO-HVEM12 cells. A variant gD protein, gD-1 (Δ290-299t), showed enhanced binding to HVEM(200t) relative to the binding of gD-1(306t). Competition studies showed that gD-1(Δ290-299t) and gD-l(306t) bound to the same region of HVEM(200t), suggesting that the differences in binding to HVEM are due to differences in affinity. These differences were also reflected in the ability of gD-1(Δ290-299t) but not gD-1 (306t) to block HSV type I infection of CHO-HVEM12 cells. By gel filtration chromatography, the complex between gD-1(Δ290-299t) and HVEM(200t) had a molecular mass of 113 kDa and a molar ratio of 1:2. We conclude that HVEM interacts directly with gD, suggesting that HVEM is a receptor for virion gD and that the interaction between these proteins is a step in HSV entry into HVEM-expressing cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6083-6093
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume71
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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    Whitbeck, J. C., Peng, C., Lou, H., Xu, R., Willis, S. H., Ponce De Leon, M., Peng, T., Nicola, A. V., Montgomery, R. I., Warner, M. S., Soulika, A., Spruce, L. A., Moore, W. T., Lambris, J. D., Spear, P. G., Cohen, G. H., & Eisenberg, R. J. (1997). Glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds directly to HVEM, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and a mediator of HSV entry. Journal of Virology, 71(8), 6083-6093.