Glycemic index, cholecystokinin, satiety and disinhibition: Is there an unappreciated paradox for overweight women?

B. M. Burton-Freeman, N. L. Keim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The clinical utility of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet for appetite and food intake control is controversial. Complicating the issue are psychological and behavioral influences related to eating. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the satiety and glycemic response to high GI (HGI) and LGI meals in overweight restrained (R, n=12) and unrestrained (UR, n=10) women. Design and measurements: In a randomized crossover study, subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FFAs) were measured at defined intervals for 8 h after the participants consumed HGI or LGI test meals. Test meals were matched for energy, energy density, macronutrient content and available carbohydrate, but differed by carbohydrate source; refined grain versus whole grain, respectively. Results: The HGI meal resulted in greater satiety overall, suppressing hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption compared with the LGI (P<0.01) meal. Plasma CCK was significantly elevated after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0.001). Plasma glucose, insulin and TG were higher and FFAs were lower after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0001). Dietary restraint did not significantly influence CCK (P=0.14) or subjective satiety (P>0.4); however, an interaction of restraint and disinhibition on CCK was apparent. CCK was blunted in R participants with higher disinhibition scores than UR or R participants with lower disinhibition scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: A LGI diet may not be suitable for optimal satiety and appetite control in overweight women. The relationship between cognitive influences of eating and biobehavioral outcomes requires further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1647-1654
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume32
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2008

Fingerprint

Glycemic Index
Cholecystokinin
Meals
Eating
Appetite
Satiety Response
Carbohydrates
Diet
Hunger
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Cross-Over Studies
Insulin
Psychology
Glucose

Keywords

  • CCK
  • Disinhibition
  • Eating behavior
  • Food intake
  • Glycemic index
  • Satiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Glycemic index, cholecystokinin, satiety and disinhibition : Is there an unappreciated paradox for overweight women? / Burton-Freeman, B. M.; Keim, N. L.

In: International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 32, No. 11, 11.2008, p. 1647-1654.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{25c98aa81cee4fa1a1c392dadf8e120b,
title = "Glycemic index, cholecystokinin, satiety and disinhibition: Is there an unappreciated paradox for overweight women?",
abstract = "Background: The clinical utility of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet for appetite and food intake control is controversial. Complicating the issue are psychological and behavioral influences related to eating. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the satiety and glycemic response to high GI (HGI) and LGI meals in overweight restrained (R, n=12) and unrestrained (UR, n=10) women. Design and measurements: In a randomized crossover study, subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FFAs) were measured at defined intervals for 8 h after the participants consumed HGI or LGI test meals. Test meals were matched for energy, energy density, macronutrient content and available carbohydrate, but differed by carbohydrate source; refined grain versus whole grain, respectively. Results: The HGI meal resulted in greater satiety overall, suppressing hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption compared with the LGI (P<0.01) meal. Plasma CCK was significantly elevated after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0.001). Plasma glucose, insulin and TG were higher and FFAs were lower after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0001). Dietary restraint did not significantly influence CCK (P=0.14) or subjective satiety (P>0.4); however, an interaction of restraint and disinhibition on CCK was apparent. CCK was blunted in R participants with higher disinhibition scores than UR or R participants with lower disinhibition scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: A LGI diet may not be suitable for optimal satiety and appetite control in overweight women. The relationship between cognitive influences of eating and biobehavioral outcomes requires further investigation.",
keywords = "CCK, Disinhibition, Eating behavior, Food intake, Glycemic index, Satiety",
author = "Burton-Freeman, {B. M.} and Keim, {N. L.}",
year = "2008",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1038/ijo.2008.159",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "32",
pages = "1647--1654",
journal = "International Journal of Obesity",
issn = "0307-0565",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Glycemic index, cholecystokinin, satiety and disinhibition

T2 - Is there an unappreciated paradox for overweight women?

AU - Burton-Freeman, B. M.

AU - Keim, N. L.

PY - 2008/11

Y1 - 2008/11

N2 - Background: The clinical utility of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet for appetite and food intake control is controversial. Complicating the issue are psychological and behavioral influences related to eating. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the satiety and glycemic response to high GI (HGI) and LGI meals in overweight restrained (R, n=12) and unrestrained (UR, n=10) women. Design and measurements: In a randomized crossover study, subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FFAs) were measured at defined intervals for 8 h after the participants consumed HGI or LGI test meals. Test meals were matched for energy, energy density, macronutrient content and available carbohydrate, but differed by carbohydrate source; refined grain versus whole grain, respectively. Results: The HGI meal resulted in greater satiety overall, suppressing hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption compared with the LGI (P<0.01) meal. Plasma CCK was significantly elevated after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0.001). Plasma glucose, insulin and TG were higher and FFAs were lower after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0001). Dietary restraint did not significantly influence CCK (P=0.14) or subjective satiety (P>0.4); however, an interaction of restraint and disinhibition on CCK was apparent. CCK was blunted in R participants with higher disinhibition scores than UR or R participants with lower disinhibition scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: A LGI diet may not be suitable for optimal satiety and appetite control in overweight women. The relationship between cognitive influences of eating and biobehavioral outcomes requires further investigation.

AB - Background: The clinical utility of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet for appetite and food intake control is controversial. Complicating the issue are psychological and behavioral influences related to eating. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the satiety and glycemic response to high GI (HGI) and LGI meals in overweight restrained (R, n=12) and unrestrained (UR, n=10) women. Design and measurements: In a randomized crossover study, subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FFAs) were measured at defined intervals for 8 h after the participants consumed HGI or LGI test meals. Test meals were matched for energy, energy density, macronutrient content and available carbohydrate, but differed by carbohydrate source; refined grain versus whole grain, respectively. Results: The HGI meal resulted in greater satiety overall, suppressing hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption compared with the LGI (P<0.01) meal. Plasma CCK was significantly elevated after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0.001). Plasma glucose, insulin and TG were higher and FFAs were lower after the HGI meal compared with the LGI meal (P<0001). Dietary restraint did not significantly influence CCK (P=0.14) or subjective satiety (P>0.4); however, an interaction of restraint and disinhibition on CCK was apparent. CCK was blunted in R participants with higher disinhibition scores than UR or R participants with lower disinhibition scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: A LGI diet may not be suitable for optimal satiety and appetite control in overweight women. The relationship between cognitive influences of eating and biobehavioral outcomes requires further investigation.

KW - CCK

KW - Disinhibition

KW - Eating behavior

KW - Food intake

KW - Glycemic index

KW - Satiety

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=56549112484&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=56549112484&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/ijo.2008.159

DO - 10.1038/ijo.2008.159

M3 - Article

C2 - 18825157

AN - SCOPUS:56549112484

VL - 32

SP - 1647

EP - 1654

JO - International Journal of Obesity

JF - International Journal of Obesity

SN - 0307-0565

IS - 11

ER -