Glutamate uptake by brain synaptic vesicles. Energy dependence of transport and functional reconstitution in proteoliposomes

P. R. Maycox, T. Deckwerth, Johannes W Hell, R. Jahn

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282 Scopus citations

Abstract

The dependence of glutamate uptake on ATP-generated proton electrochemical potential was studied in a highly purified preparation of synaptic vesicles from rat brain. At low chloride concentration (4 mM), the proton pump present in synaptic vesicles generated a large membrane potential (inside-positive), associated with only minor acidification. Under these conditions, the rate of L-[3H]glutamate uptake was maximal. In addition, L-glutamate induced acidification of the vesicle interior. D-Glutamate produced only 40% of the effect, and L-aspartate or γ-aminobutyric acid produced less than 5%. The initial rate of glutamate-induced acidification increased with increasing glutamate concentration. It was saturable and showed first-order kinetics (K(M) = 0.32 mM). Correspondingly, L-glutamate induced a small reduction in the membrane potential. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was unaffected. In comparison, glutamate had no effect on acidification or membrane potential in resealed membranes of chromaffin granules. At high chloride concentration (150 mM), the vesicular proton pump generated a large pH difference, associated with a small change in membrane potential. Under these conditions, uptake of L-[3H]glutamate by synaptic vesicles was low. For reconstitution, vesicle proteins were solubilized with the detergent, sodium cholate, supplemented with brain phospholipids, and incorporated into liposomes. Proton pump and glutamate uptake activities of the proteoliposomes showed properties similar to those of intact vesicles indicating that the carrier was reconstituted in a functionally active form. It is concluded that glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles is dependent on the membrane potential and that all components required for uptake are integral parts of the vesicle membrane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15423-15428
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume263
Issue number30
StatePublished - 1988
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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