Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is frequently reported in individuals with Down syndrome, with considerable variation in the expression and severity of the symptoms. Despite growing evidence that gestational age predicts later symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the euploid population, this has not been studied in down syndrome. The current study is designed to investigate the influence of gestational age in later symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 105 individuals (49 males and 56 females; aged 6–18 years) with Down syndrome who were born at or after 35 weeks gestation. Maternal age at birth, maternal level of education, household income, as well as sex, chronological age, and cognitive level of the participant with Down syndrome were considered in our analysis. Results from this study show that gestational age is related to inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Therefore, gestational age should be addressed when considering symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, as it may have implications for early interventions. More attention is needed toward the advancement of care and follow-up for infants with down syndrome who are born even late preterm or early term.
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