Conflicts between transcription and replication machinery are a potent source of replication stress and genome instability; however, no technique currently exists to identify endogenous genomic locations prone to transcription-replication interactions. Here, we report a novel method to identify genomic loci prone to transcription-replication interactions termed transcription-replication immunoprecipitation on nascent DNA sequencing, TRIPn-Seq. TRIPn-Seq employs the sequential immunoprecipitation of RNA polymerase 2 phosphorylated at serine 5 (RNAP2s5) followed by enrichment of nascent DNA previously labeled with bromodeoxyuridine. Using TRIPn-Seq, we mapped 1009 unique transcription-replication interactions (TRIs) in mouse primary B cells characterized by a bimodal pattern of RNAP2s5, bidirectional transcription, an enrichment of RNA:DNA hybrids, and a high probability of forming G-quadruplexes. TRIs are highly enriched at transcription start sites and map to early replicating regions. TRIs exhibit enhanced Replication Protein A association and TRI-associated genes exhibit higher replication fork termination than control transcription start sites, two marks of replication stress. TRIs colocalize with double-strand DNA breaks, are enriched for deletions, and accumulate mutations in tumors. We propose that replication stress at TRIs induces mutations potentially contributing to age-related disease, as well as tumor formation and development.
ASJC Scopus subject areas