Peronospora tabacina is an obligate biotrophic oomycete that causes blue mold or downy mildew on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). It is an economically important disease occurring frequently in tobacco-growing regions worldwide. We sequenced and characterized the genomes of two P. tabacina isolates and mined them for pathogenicity-related proteins and effectorencoding genes. De novo assembly of the genomes using Illumina reads resulted in 4,016 (63.1 Mb, N50 = 79 kb) and 3,245 (55.3 Mb, N50 = 61 kb) scaffolds for isolates 968-J2 and 968-S26, respectively, with an estimated genome size of 68 Mb. The mitochondrial genome has a similar size (approximately 43 kb) and structure to those of other oomycetes, plus several minor unique features. Repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up approximately 24% of the nuclear genome. Approximately 18,000 protein-coding gene models were predicted. Mining the secretome revealed approximately 120 candidate RxLR, six CRN (candidate effectors that elicit crinkling and necrosis), and 61 WY domain-containing proteins. Candidate RxLR effectors were shown to be predominantly undergoing diversifying selection, with approximately 57% located in variable gene-sparse regions of the genome. Aligning the P. tabacina genome to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora spp. revealed a high level of synteny. Blocks of synteny show gene inversions and instances of expansion in intergenic regions. Extensive rearrangements of the gene-rich genomic regions do not appear to have occurred during the evolution of these highly variable pathogens. These assemblies provide the basis for studies of virulence in this and other downy mildew pathogens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science