Genitourinary Changes with Aging

Caroline M. Mitchell, L Elaine Waetjen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Both chronologic aging and menopause affect the physical, physiologic, and microbiological characteristics of the genitourinary tract. The genitourinary syndrome of menopause, characterized by vulvovaginal and lower urinary tract signs and symptoms, is prevalent and has a significant negative impact on women's lives. In this article, the authors detail the genitourinary tract changes associated with menopause and/or aging. They also review the 2014 North American Menopause Society's definition of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause and present the epidemiology and impact of genitourinary aging in midlife and older women, namely, vulvovaginal, urinary, and sexual symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)737-750
Number of pages14
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018


  • Atrophic vaginitis
  • Genitourinary syndrome of menopause
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Urinary symptoms
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Vulvar atrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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