Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is an important pathogen in common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio, varieties. Two main genotypes of KHV have been reported worldwide that are associated with Asian and European origins. In the USA, outbreaks of KHV diseases have been reported in different states since the early 1990s; however, the diversity of KHV is unknown. In the current study, 67 DNA samples that were extracted from clinical cases of koi tissues that were submitted for diagnosis during KHV outbreaks from 10 different states in the USA from 1999 to 2019 were used to investigate their genetic diversity. The thymidine kinase gene was amplified, sequenced, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Our results showed that the KHV isolates that were collected from the different states were clustered in the two known KHV genogroups, where 31 isolates belonged to the Asian genotype branch and 36 to the European genotype branch. The spatiotemporal analysis demonstrated fluctuation of KHV genotypes in the USA, as the main KHV genotype that was detected in koi in the USA from 1999 to 2013 was the European genotype, whereas the Asian KHV genotype appeared to emerge in the USA in 2008, increasing in incidence until 2019. The current study provides evidence on the genetic diversity of KHV in the USA. Future studies that evaluate the virulence of these genetically diverse isolates is warranted to obtain a better understanding of the epidemiology of this re-emerging pathogen. This may provide an improved awareness of the current status of KHV and help to control the disease in the koi population in the USA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aquatic Science