Genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in HIV-1-infected youth: Fine-mapping for the GC/DBP gene that encodes the vitamin D-binding protein

Travis R. Porter, Xuelin Li, Charles B. Stephensen, Kathleen Mulligan, Brandy Rutledge, Patricia M. Flynn, Jorge Lujan-Zilbermann, Rohan Hazra, Craig M. Wilson, Peter L. Havens, Jianming Tang

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6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is often deficient (<12 ng/ml) or insufficient (<20 ng/ml) in youth living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (YLH). Based on evidence from multiple genome-wide association studies, we hypothesized that genetic factors associated with 25(OH)D deficiency should be readily detectable in YLH even when controlling for other known factors, including use of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz (EFV). Genotyping by bi-directional sequencing targeted 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the GC/DBP locus, with a focus on coding and regulatory variants, as well as those repeatedly reported in the literature. Three intronic SNPs (rs222016, rs222020, and rs222029) in a conserved haplotype block had unequivocal association signals (false discovery rate ≤ 0.006). In particular, the minor allele G for rs222020 was highly unfavorable among 192 YLH (99 African-Americans and 93 others), as gauged by relatively low likelihood for 25(OH)D sufficiency at enrollment (odds ratio = 0.31, p = 9.0 × 10-4). In a reduced multivariable model, race, season, latitude, body mass index, exposure to EFV, and rs222020-G were independent factors that collectively accounted for 38% of variance in the log10-transformed 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.0001). Interaction terms were evident for rs222020-G × season (p < 0.001), latitude × season (especially fall and winter; p < 0.01), and race × EFV use (p = 0.024). Overall, variance in serum 25(OH)D is substantially attributable to multiple factors, but the exact contribution of genetic and non-genetic factors can be obscured by partial overlaps and frequent interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberArticle 234
JournalFrontiers in Genetics
Volume4
Issue numberNOV
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

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Keywords

  • Antiretroviral
  • Genetics
  • HIV-1
  • Race
  • Vitamin D
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

Porter, T. R., Li, X., Stephensen, C. B., Mulligan, K., Rutledge, B., Flynn, P. M., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Hazra, R., Wilson, C. M., Havens, P. L., & Tang, J. (2013). Genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in HIV-1-infected youth: Fine-mapping for the GC/DBP gene that encodes the vitamin D-binding protein. Frontiers in Genetics, 4(NOV), [Article 234]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2013.00234