Generation and age of immigration on later life cognitive performance in KHANDLE

Oanh L. Meyer, Chloe W. Eng, Michelle J. Ko, Michelle Chan, Uyen Ngo, Paola Gilsanz, M. Maria Glymour, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Dan M Mungas, Rachel Whitmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: We examined the association of generational status and age at immigration with later life cognitive outcomes in a diverse sample of Latinos and Asian Americans. Design: Baseline data were obtained from the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) study, and a prospective cohort is initiated in 2017. Setting: Older adults in Northern California. Participants: Our cohort consisted of Asians (n = 411) and Latinos (n = 340) who were on average 76 years old (SD = 6.8). Measurements: We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations between generational status and age at immigration (collapsed into one five-level variable) with measures of verbal episodic memory, semantic memory, and executive function, adjusting for age, gender, race and ethnicity, and own- A nd parental education. Results: Generational status and age at immigration were associated with cognitive outcomes in a graded manner. Compared to third-generation or higher immigrants, first-generation immigration in adulthood was associated with lower semantic memory (β =-0.96; 95% CI:-1.12,-0.81) than immigration in adolescence (β =-0.68; 95% CI:-0.96,-0.41) or childhood (β =-0.28; 95% CI:-0.49,-0.06). Moreover, immigration in adulthood was associated with lower executive function (β =-0.63; 95% CI:-0.78,-0.48) than immigration in adolescence (β =-0.49; 95% CI:-0.75,-0.23). Similarly, compared to third-generation individuals, first-generation immigrants had lower executive functioning scores. Conclusions: Our study supports the notion that sociocontextual influences in early life impact later life cognitive scores. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify how immigration characteristics affect cognitive decline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • cognition
  • diversity
  • Key words:
  • nativity status
  • race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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