Ibuprofen, an inhibitor of prostanoid biosynthesis, is a common pharmacological agent used for the management of pain, inflammation and fever. However, the chronic use of ibuprofen at high doses is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal and liver injuries. The underlying mechanisms of ibuprofen-mediated effects on liver remain unclear. To determine the mechanisms and signaling pathways affected by ibuprofen (100 mg/kg/day for seven days), we performed proteomic profiling of male mice liver with quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using ten-plex tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling. More than 300 proteins were significantly altered between the control and ibuprofen-treated groups. The data suggests that several major pathways including (1) energy metabolism, (2) protein degradation, (3) fatty acid metabolism and (4) antioxidant system are altered in livers from ibuprofen treated mice. Independent validation of protein changes in energy metabolism and the antioxidant system was carried out by Western blotting and showed sex-related differences. Proteasome and immunoproteasome activity/expression assays showed ibuprofen induced gender-specific proteasome and immunoproteasome dysfunction in liver. The study observed multifactorial gender-specific ibuprofen-mediated effects on mice liver and suggests that males and females are affected differently by ibuprofen.
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