Infection with Helicobacter pylori is usually asymptomatic but sometimes progresses to peptic ulcer disease or gastric adenocarcinoma. The development of disease involves both host and bacterial factors. In order to better understand host factors in pathogenesis, we studied the gastric transcription profile of H. pylori infection in the rhesus macaque by using DNA microarrays. Significant changes were found in the expression of genes important for innate immunity, chemokines and cytokines, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, structural proteins, and signal transduction and transcription factors. This broad transcription profile demonstrated expected up-regulation of cell structural elements and the host inflammatory and immune response, as well as the novel finding of down-regulation of heat shock proteins. These results provide a unique view of acute H. pylori infection in a relevant animal model system and will direct future studies regarding the host response to H. pylori infection.
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