This chapter summarizes contemporary techniques of manipulation of mouse gametes and embryos. In this context, "manipulation" refers to the creation by assisted reproduction, for example, in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection; genetic modification, for example, transgenesis and gene targeting; preservation, for example, cryopreservation; rederivation, such as embryo transfer; and cloning, such as intracytoplasmic nuclear injection, of mouse embryos. Assisted reproduction refers to any procedure that ultimately results in the creation of a diploid embryo using a non-natural means to combine male (sperm) and female (oocytes) gametes. This chapter summarizes the techniques applied to derive viable embryos with the potential to develop into liveborn offspring. In each category, the purpose, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of each procedure are discussed in the chapter. The chapter further summarizes the techniques that are most often applied to manipulation of embryos to create genetically altered mouse strains.
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