Galanin GAL-R1 receptor null mutant mice display increased anxiety-like behavior specific to the elevated plus-maze.

Andrew Holmes, Jefferson W. Kinney, Craige C. Wrenn, Qian Li, Rebecca J. Yang, L. Ma, Janani Vishwanath, Maria C. Saavedra, Caitlin E. Innerfield, Arie S. Jacoby, John Shine, Tiina P. Iismaa, Jacqueline Crawley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

143 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The neuropeptide galanin coexists with norepinephrine and serotonin in neural systems mediating emotion. Previous findings suggested that galanin modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. Three galanin receptor subtypes have been cloned; however, understanding their functions has been limited by the lack of galanin receptor subtype-selective ligands. To study the role of the galanin GAL-R1 receptor subtype in mediating anxiety-related behavior, we generated mice with a null mutation in the Galr1 gene. GAL-R1 -/- are viable and show no abnormalities in health, neurological reflexes, motoric functions, or sensory abilities. On a battery of tests for anxiety-like behavior, GAL-R1 -/- showed increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze test. Anxiety-related behaviors on the light/dark exploration, emergence, and open field tests were normal in GAL-R1 -/-. This test-specific anxiety-like phenotype was confirmed in a second, independent cohort of GAL-R1 null mutant mice and +/+ controls. Principal components factor analysis of behavioral scores from 279 mice suggested that anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze was qualitatively distinct from behavior on other tests in the battery. In addition, exposure to the elevated plus-maze produced a significantly greater neuroendocrine response than exposure to the light/dark exploration test, as analyzed in normal C57BL/6J mice. These behavioral findings in the first galanin receptor null mutant mouse are consistent with the hypothesis that galanin exerts anxiolytic actions via the GAL-R1 receptor under conditions of relatively high stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1031-1044
Number of pages14
JournalNeuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Volume28
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2003
Externally publishedYes

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Galanin
Anxiety
Galanin Receptors
Light
Aptitude
Anti-Anxiety Agents
Principal Component Analysis
Neuropeptides
Inbred C57BL Mouse
Statistical Factor Analysis
Reflex
Rodentia
Serotonin
Norepinephrine
Emotions
Ligands
Phenotype
Mutation
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Galanin GAL-R1 receptor null mutant mice display increased anxiety-like behavior specific to the elevated plus-maze. / Holmes, Andrew; Kinney, Jefferson W.; Wrenn, Craige C.; Li, Qian; Yang, Rebecca J.; Ma, L.; Vishwanath, Janani; Saavedra, Maria C.; Innerfield, Caitlin E.; Jacoby, Arie S.; Shine, John; Iismaa, Tiina P.; Crawley, Jacqueline.

In: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 28, No. 6, 06.2003, p. 1031-1044.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Holmes, A, Kinney, JW, Wrenn, CC, Li, Q, Yang, RJ, Ma, L, Vishwanath, J, Saavedra, MC, Innerfield, CE, Jacoby, AS, Shine, J, Iismaa, TP & Crawley, J 2003, 'Galanin GAL-R1 receptor null mutant mice display increased anxiety-like behavior specific to the elevated plus-maze.', Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1031-1044.
Holmes, Andrew ; Kinney, Jefferson W. ; Wrenn, Craige C. ; Li, Qian ; Yang, Rebecca J. ; Ma, L. ; Vishwanath, Janani ; Saavedra, Maria C. ; Innerfield, Caitlin E. ; Jacoby, Arie S. ; Shine, John ; Iismaa, Tiina P. ; Crawley, Jacqueline. / Galanin GAL-R1 receptor null mutant mice display increased anxiety-like behavior specific to the elevated plus-maze. In: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 ; Vol. 28, No. 6. pp. 1031-1044.
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abstract = "The neuropeptide galanin coexists with norepinephrine and serotonin in neural systems mediating emotion. Previous findings suggested that galanin modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. Three galanin receptor subtypes have been cloned; however, understanding their functions has been limited by the lack of galanin receptor subtype-selective ligands. To study the role of the galanin GAL-R1 receptor subtype in mediating anxiety-related behavior, we generated mice with a null mutation in the Galr1 gene. GAL-R1 -/- are viable and show no abnormalities in health, neurological reflexes, motoric functions, or sensory abilities. On a battery of tests for anxiety-like behavior, GAL-R1 -/- showed increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze test. Anxiety-related behaviors on the light/dark exploration, emergence, and open field tests were normal in GAL-R1 -/-. This test-specific anxiety-like phenotype was confirmed in a second, independent cohort of GAL-R1 null mutant mice and +/+ controls. Principal components factor analysis of behavioral scores from 279 mice suggested that anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze was qualitatively distinct from behavior on other tests in the battery. In addition, exposure to the elevated plus-maze produced a significantly greater neuroendocrine response than exposure to the light/dark exploration test, as analyzed in normal C57BL/6J mice. These behavioral findings in the first galanin receptor null mutant mouse are consistent with the hypothesis that galanin exerts anxiolytic actions via the GAL-R1 receptor under conditions of relatively high stress.",
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AU - Li, Qian

AU - Yang, Rebecca J.

AU - Ma, L.

AU - Vishwanath, Janani

AU - Saavedra, Maria C.

AU - Innerfield, Caitlin E.

AU - Jacoby, Arie S.

AU - Shine, John

AU - Iismaa, Tiina P.

AU - Crawley, Jacqueline

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