Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45β (Gadd45β) have been shown to play a role in inducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis under ischemia/anoxia. The well-known transcription factor p53 is known to cause apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under ischemia. Based on the common role of Gadd45β and p53 in ischemia-induced apoptosis, we investigated whether p53 is involved in the mechanisms responsible for Gadd45β expression in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic heart injury. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of p53 to the Gadd45β promoter region during anoxia, and this binding was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance imaging. In rat heart-derived H9c2 cells, silencing of p53 abrogated the increase of Gadd45β promoter-luciferase reporter (Gadd45β-Luc) activity and the expression of Gadd45β under anoxia and overexpression of p53 enhanced Gadd45β-Luc activity and Gadd45β expression. Gadd45β mRNA and protein expression were significantly inhibited by p53 siRNA in a rat ischemic heart model. In addition, p38α-mediated phophorylation of p53 at both Ser15 and Ser20 was shown to be essential for the expression of Gadd45β mRNA and protein during anoxia. These results reveal the p38α-p53- Gadd45β axis as a novel signaling module in the anoxia-induced apoptotic death pathway. In conclusion, this study provides molecular evidence that Gadd45β is a novel downstream target gene of p53 under ischemia/anoxia and suggests the therapeutic potential of targeting Gadd45β as a treatment of ischemic heart injury. Key message: Gadd45β is transcriptionally induced by p53 via direct binding under ischemia/anoxia. The induction of Gadd45β expression requires the p53 phosphorylation at Ser15/Ser20. p38α mediates the p53 phosphorylation at Ser15/Ser20 and the Gadd45β expression. Ischemia/anoxia-p38α-p53-Gadd45β axis serves as a novel apoptotic signaling module.
- Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45β
- H9c2 cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery