Bionanotechnology has now become firmly established in its own right as one of the principle and focused subdisciplines within nanotechnology. Bionanotechnology can be defined as a field representing all facets of research at the intersection of biology and nanomaterials (NM) and is generally characterized as having two somewhat opposite functional goals. The interest in using NMs, and especially NPs, as part of biomolecular composites arises from the unique size-dependent physical, optical, electronic, and chemical properties that they can contribute to the resulting conjugate. These may include quantum confined properties as typified by the size-tunable photoluminescence (PL) of nanocrystalline semiconductor quantum dots (QD), the plasmon resonances of gold NPs, the electrical properties of carbon allotrope NMs, and the paramagnetism and catalytic properties available to certain metal alloy and metal oxide NPs.
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