Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome

Sharon S. Elliott, Nancy L. Keim, Judith S. Stern, Karen Teff, Peter J. Havel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

This review explores whether fructose consumption might be a contributing factor to the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities observed in the insulin resistance syndrome. The per capita disappearance data for fructose from the combined consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup have increased by 26%, from 64 g/d in 1970 to 81 g/d in 1997. Both plasma insulin and leptin act in the central nervous system in the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. Because fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, the consumption of foods and beverages containing fructose produces smaller postprandial insulin excursions than does consumption of glucose-containing carbohydrate. Because leptin production is regulated by insulin responses to meals, fructose consumption also reduces circulating leptin concentrations. The combined effects of lowered circulating leptin and insulin in individuals who consume diets that are high in dietary fructose could therefore increase the likelihood of weight gain and its associated metabolic sequelae. In addition, fructose, compared with glucose, is preferentially metabolized to lipid in the liver. Fructose consumption induces insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia, and hypertension in animal models. The data in humans are less clear. Although there are existing data on the metabolic and endocrine effects of dietary fructose that suggest that increased consumption of fructose may be detrimental in terms of body weight and adiposity and the metabolic indexes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, much more research is needed to fully understand the metabolic effect of dietary fructose in humans.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages911-922
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume76
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2002

Fingerprint

Fructose
insulin resistance
Weight Gain
Insulin Resistance
fructose
weight gain
Leptin
leptin
Insulin
insulin
high fructose corn syrup
Glucose
Food and Beverages
glucose
Glucose Intolerance
hyperinsulinemia
complications (disease)
insulin secretion
islets of Langerhans
Adiposity

Keywords

  • Fructose
  • Hypertension
  • Insulin resistance
  • Leptin
  • Obesity
  • Review
  • Triacylglycerol
  • Weight gain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Elliott, S. S., Keim, N. L., Stern, J. S., Teff, K., & Havel, P. J. (2002). Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76(5), 911-922.

Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. / Elliott, Sharon S.; Keim, Nancy L.; Stern, Judith S.; Teff, Karen; Havel, Peter J.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 76, No. 5, 01.11.2002, p. 911-922.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Elliott, SS, Keim, NL, Stern, JS, Teff, K & Havel, PJ 2002, 'Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome' American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 76, no. 5, pp. 911-922.
Elliott, Sharon S. ; Keim, Nancy L. ; Stern, Judith S. ; Teff, Karen ; Havel, Peter J./ Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002 ; Vol. 76, No. 5. pp. 911-922
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