From cleanroom to desktop: Emerging micro-nanofabrication technology for biomedical applications

Tingrui Pan, Wei Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


This review is motivated by the growing demand for low-cost, easy-to-use, compact-size yet powerful micro-nanofabrication technology to address emerging challenges of fundamental biology and translational medicine in regular laboratory settings. Recent advancements in the field benefit considerably from rapidly expanding material selections, ranging from inorganics to organics and from nanoparticles to self-assembled molecules. Meanwhile a great number of novel methodologies, employing off-the-shelf consumer electronics, intriguing interfacial phenomena, bottom-up self-assembly principles, etc., have been implemented to transit micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to a desktop setup. Furthermore, the latest application of micro-nanofabrication to emerging biomedical research will be presented in detail, which includes point-of-care diagnostics, on-chip cell culture as well as bio-manipulation. While significant progresses have been made in the rapidly growing field, both apparent and unrevealed roadblocks will need to be addressed in the future. We conclude this review by offering our perspectives on the current technical challenges and future research opportunities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)600-620
Number of pages21
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011


  • Biomedical engineering
  • Lithography
  • Microfabrication
  • Nanofabrication
  • Out-of-cleanroom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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