Frequency of and risk factors for epistaxis associated with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses: 251,609 race starts (1992-1997)

Toshiyuki Takahashi, Atsushi Hiraga, Hajime Ohmura, Makoto Kai, James H Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To determine the frequency of epistaxis during or after racing among racehorses and identify factors associated with development of epistaxis. Design - Retrospective study. Sample Population - 247,564 Thoroughbred and 4,045 Anglo-Arab race starts. Procedure - Race start information (breed, age, sex, racing distance, and race type) was obtained for Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses racing in Japan Racing Association-sanctioned races between 1992 and 1997. All horses that raced were examined by a veterinarian within 30 minutes of the conclusion of the race; any horse that had blood at the nostrils was examined with an endoscope. If blood was observed in the trachea, epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) was diagnosed. Results - Epistaxis related to EIPH was identified following 369 race starts (0.15%). Frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis was significantly associated with race type, age, distance, and sex. Epistaxis was more common following steeplechase races than following flat races, in older horses than in horses that were 2 years old, following races ≤ 1,600 m long than following races between 1,601 and 2,000 m long, and in females than in sexually intact males. For horses that had an episode of epistaxis, the recurrence rate was 4.64%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggested that frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis in racehorses is associated with the horse's age and sex, the type of race, and the distance raced. The higher frequency in shorter races suggests that higher intensity exercise of shorter duration may increase the probability of EIPH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1462-1464
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume218
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2001

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Epistaxis
Horses
hemorrhage
exercise
risk factors
lungs
Exercise
Hemorrhage
horses
Lung
Arabian (horse breed)
racehorses
gender
endoscopes
trachea (vertebrates)
Veterinarians
Endoscopes
blood
Trachea
retrospective studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Frequency of and risk factors for epistaxis associated with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses : 251,609 race starts (1992-1997). / Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Hiraga, Atsushi; Ohmura, Hajime; Kai, Makoto; Jones, James H.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 218, No. 9, 01.05.2001, p. 1462-1464.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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