Fragile X Syndrome: Lessons Learned and What New Treatment Avenues Are on the Horizon

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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and the leading single-gene form of autism spectrum disorder, encompassing cognitive, behavioral, and physical forms of clinical involvement. FXS is caused by large expansions of a noncoding CGG repeat (>200 repeats) in the FMR1 gene, at which point the gene is generally silenced. Absence of FMR1 protein (FMRP), important for synaptic development and maintenance, gives rise to the neurodevelopmental disorder. There is, at present, no therapeutic approach that directly reverses the loss of FMRP; however, there is an increasing number of potential treatments that target the pathways dysregulated in FXS, including those that address the enhanced activity of the mGluR5 pathway and deficits in GABA pathways. Based on studies of targeted therapeutics to date, the prospects are good for one or more effective therapies for FXS in the near future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-381
Number of pages17
JournalAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
StatePublished - Jan 6 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • FMR1
  • autism
  • CGG repeat
  • FMRP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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