Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation

Elektra J. Papadopoulos, Chris Sassetti, Hidehisa Saeki, Nobuo Yamada, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura, David J. Fitzhugh, Manisha A. Saraf, Thomas Schall, Andrew Blauvelt, Steven D. Rosen, Samuel T Hwang

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140 Scopus citations


The lone CX3C chemokine, fractalkine (FK), is expressed in a membrane-bound form on activated endothelial cells and mediates attachment and firm adhesion of T cells, monocytes and NK cells. We now show that FK is associated with dendritic cells (DC) in epidermis and lymphoid organs. In normal human skin, dual-color fluorescence microscopy co-localized FK expression with Langerhans cells expressing CD1a. In tonsil, FK-positive DC expressed CD83, a marker for mature DC. Human and murine cultured DC up-regulated FK mRNA expression with maturation. Furthermore, CD40 ligation, but not TNF-α or lipopolysaccharide treatment, of activated, migratory DC that had migrated from skin explants resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of surface expression of FK without significant alterations of expression of CD80, CD86, CD54 or MHC class II. Since FK mediates adhesion of T cells to activated endothelial cells, the increased expression of FK during DC maturation (and particularly by CD40 ligation) may play a role in the ability of T cells and mature DC to form conjugates and engage in cell-cell communication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2551-2559
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Immunology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes



  • Chemokine
  • Dendritic cell
  • Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Papadopoulos, E. J., Sassetti, C., Saeki, H., Yamada, N., Kawamura, T., Fitzhugh, D. J., Saraf, M. A., Schall, T., Blauvelt, A., Rosen, S. D., & Hwang, S. T. (1999). Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation. European Journal of Immunology, 29(8), 2551-2559.<2551::AID-IMMU2551>3.0.CO;2-T