Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse

Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Gabriel E. Hoffman, Jeremy J. Allen, Erin Chu, Esther Gu, Alyssa M. Chandler, Ariel I. Loredo, Rebecca Bellone, Jason G. Mezey, Samantha A. Brooks, Nathan B. Sutter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

90 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere39929
JournalPLoS One
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 11 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Horses
Genes
horses
loci
domestication
Mammals
Dogs
breeds
withers
genes
dogs
Genome-Wide Association Study
cattle
Body Size
population structure
body size
Alleles
mammals
alleles
genetic variation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Makvandi-Nejad, S., Hoffman, G. E., Allen, J. J., Chu, E., Gu, E., Chandler, A. M., ... Sutter, N. B. (2012). Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse. PLoS One, 7(7), [e39929]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039929

Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse. / Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 7, e39929, 11.07.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Makvandi-Nejad, S, Hoffman, GE, Allen, JJ, Chu, E, Gu, E, Chandler, AM, Loredo, AI, Bellone, R, Mezey, JG, Brooks, SA & Sutter, NB 2012, 'Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse', PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 7, e39929. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039929
Makvandi-Nejad S, Hoffman GE, Allen JJ, Chu E, Gu E, Chandler AM et al. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse. PLoS One. 2012 Jul 11;7(7). e39929. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039929
Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh ; Hoffman, Gabriel E. ; Allen, Jeremy J. ; Chu, Erin ; Gu, Esther ; Chandler, Alyssa M. ; Loredo, Ariel I. ; Bellone, Rebecca ; Mezey, Jason G. ; Brooks, Samantha A. ; Sutter, Nathan B. / Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse. In: PLoS One. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 7.
@article{00db911d2eea4a708c00f9d53375b3c5,
title = "Four loci explain 83{\%} of size variation in the horse",
abstract = "Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.",
author = "Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad and Hoffman, {Gabriel E.} and Allen, {Jeremy J.} and Erin Chu and Esther Gu and Chandler, {Alyssa M.} and Loredo, {Ariel I.} and Rebecca Bellone and Mezey, {Jason G.} and Brooks, {Samantha A.} and Sutter, {Nathan B.}",
year = "2012",
month = "7",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0039929",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse

AU - Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh

AU - Hoffman, Gabriel E.

AU - Allen, Jeremy J.

AU - Chu, Erin

AU - Gu, Esther

AU - Chandler, Alyssa M.

AU - Loredo, Ariel I.

AU - Bellone, Rebecca

AU - Mezey, Jason G.

AU - Brooks, Samantha A.

AU - Sutter, Nathan B.

PY - 2012/7/11

Y1 - 2012/7/11

N2 - Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

AB - Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84863815949&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84863815949&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0039929

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0039929

M3 - Article

C2 - 22808074

AN - SCOPUS:84863815949

VL - 7

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 7

M1 - e39929

ER -