Forearm loop arteriovenous grafts preserve and may create new upper arm access sites

Nathan K. Itoga, Whitt Virgin-Downy, Matthew Mell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: This study evaluated the mid-term patency of forearm loop arteriovenous grafts and the dilation of previously inadequate upper arm basilic and cephalic veins after failed forearm loop arteriovenous graft. Methods: All access procedures from September 2009 to December 2015 were reviewed. Vein mapping measurements were used to determine whether there was “adequate” upper arm cephalic and/or basilic vein, defined as ⩾3 mm by duplex ultrasound, at the time of forearm loop arteriovenous graft creation. Outcomes of forearm loop arteriovenous graft were compared with upper arm arteriovenous fistula, and primary and cumulative patencies were evaluated. Results: Thirty-eight forearm loop arteriovenous grafts and 278 upper arm arteriovenous fistulas were created. In the forearm loop arteriovenous graft cohort, nine were inserted with adequate upper arm vein, group A, and 29 were inserted with inadequate upper arm vein, group B. Cumulative patency was lower for forearm loop arteriovenous graft compared with upper arm arteriovenous fistula at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (67% vs 91%, 61% vs 85%, and 49% vs 80%, respectively, P <.01). Comparison of group A forearm loop arteriovenous graft and upper arm arteriovenous fistula did not show a statistical difference in cumulative patency at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (P =.80,.62, and.70, respectively). Of group B with failed forearm loop arteriovenous graft, 36% became candidates for upper arm arteriovenous fistula with dilation of ipsilateral upper arm cephalic or basilic vein to ⩾3 mm. Conclusion: In this study, forearm loop arteriovenous graft with adequate upper arm vein did not show a statistical difference in mid-term patencies compared with upper arm arteriovenous fistula. For those forearm loop arteriovenous grafts with inadequate upper arm vein, approximately one-third of patients became candidates for upper arm arteriovenous fistula demonstrating the benefits forearm loop arteriovenous graft.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Vascular Access
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Forearm loop graft
  • hemodialysis
  • vascular access

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Nephrology

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