Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has played a prominent role in the quest to identify the brain systems responsible for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. This chapter describes the evolution of these research efforts, which have alternated between efforts to localize specific cognitive impairments to work trying to understand broader network dysfunction. After a concise summary of localization efforts, the remainder of the chapter describes how different groups of scientists have developed and tested broader network theories. This includes a description of both task-activation and resting state studies, and involves a wide array of analytic techniques. The chapter closes with an understanding of how current default-mode and task-positive network theories grew out of these earlier resting-state and task-activation approaches, and provides some recommendations about future directions.
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