Fixation method useful for cytologic examination and dna flow cytometry of exfoliated bladder cells

Lydia P Howell, Arline D. Deitch, Vicki A. Andreotti, Lorri A. Westrick, Ralph W deVere White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Single-institution studies have shown that DNA flow cytometry is superior to routine cytologic evaluation of following patients for bladder cancer recurrence. For 15 urine and 15 bladder washing specimens, we evaluated a fixative employing methanol plus acetic acid (MA), freshly mixed 20:1 (vol/vol). Routine cytologic evaluation following Papanicolaou staining, and DNA flow cytometry were performed. Paired aliquots from the same washings and urines were processed as fresh spray fixed samples and MA-fixed samples. The majority of the MA-fixed specimens showed good nuclear preservation when assessed for chromatin texture, presence of distinct nuclear envelope, and clarity of nucleolus, while only a minority of the fresh urine and washing samples showed these features. Cytoplasmic degeneration was seen only in fresh specimens. The presence of aneuploidy and the percentage of hyperdiploid cells could be reliably determined in the MA-fixed samples. This fixation protocol is recommended for the transport of urine and bladder washing specimens to centralized laboratories for both cytologic and flow cytometric evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)472-475
Number of pages4
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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