Firearm legislation, gun violence, and mortality in children and young adults: A retrospective cohort study of 27,566 children in the USA

Joshua Tseng, Miriam A Nuno, Azaria V. Lewis, Marissa Srour, Daniel R. Margulies, Rodrigo F. Alban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Firearm violence results in the death of thousands of children in the US annually. The effects of firearm legislation on gun violence are published but widely contested. Materials and Methods: The Kid's Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2009 were queried to capture hospitalizations of children diagnosed with a firearm-related injury. Cases were categorized into five levels of firearm legislation strictness by Brady State Scorecard. Trends of injuries were explored in terms of legislative strength, age, and race. Results: 27,566 children analyzed in the study. Most were adolescents aged 15–19 (87.3%), male (89.7%), and black (53.7%). The proportion of accidental injuries increased relative to state law leniency (R2 = 0.90), with highest percentage in lenient states (33.2%) compared to strict (16.7%). The proportion of suicide attempts were higher in states with lenient laws (4.4%) compared to strict (1.3%). Accidents were inversely related to age (59.3% in ages 0–4 compared to 22.0% in adolescents), while assaults were positively related to age (31.6% in ages 0–4 compared to 66.6% in adolescents). Whites were most likely to present with accidental injuries (44.6%), and Blacks and Hispanics with assaults (68.2% and 75.6%). Race (p = 0.009), age (p < 0.001), and firearm injury type (p = 0.001) were associated with mortality; Hispanics (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03–1.78), children age 5–9 (2.03, 1.30–3.17) and suicide attempts (15.6, 11.6–20.9) had higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Firearm-related injuries types in hospitalized children are associated with age, race, and state level legislation. Accidents are most prevalent in young children, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws, while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws. Suicide attempts are also associated with the greatest odds of in-hospital mortality. To address firearm violence, consideration should be given to legislation that promote safe gun storage behaviors and restrict firearm accessibility to children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-34
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Surgery
Volume57
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

Fingerprint

Child Mortality
Firearms
Legislation
Violence
Young Adult
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Suicide
Wounds and Injuries
Hospital Mortality
Hispanic Americans
Accidents
Hospitalized Child
Inpatients
Hospitalization

Keywords

  • Firearm legislation
  • Firearms
  • Kid's inpatient database
  • Mortality
  • Pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Firearm legislation, gun violence, and mortality in children and young adults : A retrospective cohort study of 27,566 children in the USA. / Tseng, Joshua; Nuno, Miriam A; Lewis, Azaria V.; Srour, Marissa; Margulies, Daniel R.; Alban, Rodrigo F.

In: International Journal of Surgery, Vol. 57, 01.09.2018, p. 30-34.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tseng, Joshua ; Nuno, Miriam A ; Lewis, Azaria V. ; Srour, Marissa ; Margulies, Daniel R. ; Alban, Rodrigo F. / Firearm legislation, gun violence, and mortality in children and young adults : A retrospective cohort study of 27,566 children in the USA. In: International Journal of Surgery. 2018 ; Vol. 57. pp. 30-34.
@article{75a445a044f84bc293ec853ddd431154,
title = "Firearm legislation, gun violence, and mortality in children and young adults: A retrospective cohort study of 27,566 children in the USA",
abstract = "Background: Firearm violence results in the death of thousands of children in the US annually. The effects of firearm legislation on gun violence are published but widely contested. Materials and Methods: The Kid's Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2009 were queried to capture hospitalizations of children diagnosed with a firearm-related injury. Cases were categorized into five levels of firearm legislation strictness by Brady State Scorecard. Trends of injuries were explored in terms of legislative strength, age, and race. Results: 27,566 children analyzed in the study. Most were adolescents aged 15–19 (87.3{\%}), male (89.7{\%}), and black (53.7{\%}). The proportion of accidental injuries increased relative to state law leniency (R2 = 0.90), with highest percentage in lenient states (33.2{\%}) compared to strict (16.7{\%}). The proportion of suicide attempts were higher in states with lenient laws (4.4{\%}) compared to strict (1.3{\%}). Accidents were inversely related to age (59.3{\%} in ages 0–4 compared to 22.0{\%} in adolescents), while assaults were positively related to age (31.6{\%} in ages 0–4 compared to 66.6{\%} in adolescents). Whites were most likely to present with accidental injuries (44.6{\%}), and Blacks and Hispanics with assaults (68.2{\%} and 75.6{\%}). Race (p = 0.009), age (p < 0.001), and firearm injury type (p = 0.001) were associated with mortality; Hispanics (OR 1.36, 95{\%} CI: 1.03–1.78), children age 5–9 (2.03, 1.30–3.17) and suicide attempts (15.6, 11.6–20.9) had higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Firearm-related injuries types in hospitalized children are associated with age, race, and state level legislation. Accidents are most prevalent in young children, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws, while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws. Suicide attempts are also associated with the greatest odds of in-hospital mortality. To address firearm violence, consideration should be given to legislation that promote safe gun storage behaviors and restrict firearm accessibility to children.",
keywords = "Firearm legislation, Firearms, Kid's inpatient database, Mortality, Pediatrics",
author = "Joshua Tseng and Nuno, {Miriam A} and Lewis, {Azaria V.} and Marissa Srour and Margulies, {Daniel R.} and Alban, {Rodrigo F.}",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.07.010",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "57",
pages = "30--34",
journal = "International Journal of Surgery",
issn = "1743-9191",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Firearm legislation, gun violence, and mortality in children and young adults

T2 - A retrospective cohort study of 27,566 children in the USA

AU - Tseng, Joshua

AU - Nuno, Miriam A

AU - Lewis, Azaria V.

AU - Srour, Marissa

AU - Margulies, Daniel R.

AU - Alban, Rodrigo F.

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - Background: Firearm violence results in the death of thousands of children in the US annually. The effects of firearm legislation on gun violence are published but widely contested. Materials and Methods: The Kid's Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2009 were queried to capture hospitalizations of children diagnosed with a firearm-related injury. Cases were categorized into five levels of firearm legislation strictness by Brady State Scorecard. Trends of injuries were explored in terms of legislative strength, age, and race. Results: 27,566 children analyzed in the study. Most were adolescents aged 15–19 (87.3%), male (89.7%), and black (53.7%). The proportion of accidental injuries increased relative to state law leniency (R2 = 0.90), with highest percentage in lenient states (33.2%) compared to strict (16.7%). The proportion of suicide attempts were higher in states with lenient laws (4.4%) compared to strict (1.3%). Accidents were inversely related to age (59.3% in ages 0–4 compared to 22.0% in adolescents), while assaults were positively related to age (31.6% in ages 0–4 compared to 66.6% in adolescents). Whites were most likely to present with accidental injuries (44.6%), and Blacks and Hispanics with assaults (68.2% and 75.6%). Race (p = 0.009), age (p < 0.001), and firearm injury type (p = 0.001) were associated with mortality; Hispanics (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03–1.78), children age 5–9 (2.03, 1.30–3.17) and suicide attempts (15.6, 11.6–20.9) had higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Firearm-related injuries types in hospitalized children are associated with age, race, and state level legislation. Accidents are most prevalent in young children, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws, while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws. Suicide attempts are also associated with the greatest odds of in-hospital mortality. To address firearm violence, consideration should be given to legislation that promote safe gun storage behaviors and restrict firearm accessibility to children.

AB - Background: Firearm violence results in the death of thousands of children in the US annually. The effects of firearm legislation on gun violence are published but widely contested. Materials and Methods: The Kid's Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2009 were queried to capture hospitalizations of children diagnosed with a firearm-related injury. Cases were categorized into five levels of firearm legislation strictness by Brady State Scorecard. Trends of injuries were explored in terms of legislative strength, age, and race. Results: 27,566 children analyzed in the study. Most were adolescents aged 15–19 (87.3%), male (89.7%), and black (53.7%). The proportion of accidental injuries increased relative to state law leniency (R2 = 0.90), with highest percentage in lenient states (33.2%) compared to strict (16.7%). The proportion of suicide attempts were higher in states with lenient laws (4.4%) compared to strict (1.3%). Accidents were inversely related to age (59.3% in ages 0–4 compared to 22.0% in adolescents), while assaults were positively related to age (31.6% in ages 0–4 compared to 66.6% in adolescents). Whites were most likely to present with accidental injuries (44.6%), and Blacks and Hispanics with assaults (68.2% and 75.6%). Race (p = 0.009), age (p < 0.001), and firearm injury type (p = 0.001) were associated with mortality; Hispanics (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03–1.78), children age 5–9 (2.03, 1.30–3.17) and suicide attempts (15.6, 11.6–20.9) had higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Firearm-related injuries types in hospitalized children are associated with age, race, and state level legislation. Accidents are most prevalent in young children, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws, while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, Whites, and states with lenient gun laws. Suicide attempts are also associated with the greatest odds of in-hospital mortality. To address firearm violence, consideration should be given to legislation that promote safe gun storage behaviors and restrict firearm accessibility to children.

KW - Firearm legislation

KW - Firearms

KW - Kid's inpatient database

KW - Mortality

KW - Pediatrics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050849941&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050849941&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.07.010

DO - 10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.07.010

M3 - Article

C2 - 30071359

AN - SCOPUS:85050849941

VL - 57

SP - 30

EP - 34

JO - International Journal of Surgery

JF - International Journal of Surgery

SN - 1743-9191

ER -