Fetal endoscopic surgery: Lessons learned and trends reviewed

Steven F. Fowler, Roman M. Sydorak, Craig T. Albanese, Diana L Farmer, Michael R. Harrison, Hanmin Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Purpose: Fetal surgery is performed increasingly with minimal access approaches. The authors report their experience with fetal endoscopic procedures (fetendo) with emphasis on changing techniques and outcome trends. Methods: All fetal endoscopic cases performed at a single institution from January 1996 to August 2001 were reviewed (n = 66). Cases were examined with respect to year performed, type of operation, operative data, and outcome. Results: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (26 cases) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (35 cases) were the most common diseases treated. From 1996 to 2001, there was a decrease in average operating time (256 to 127 minutes [P = .0006]), number of ports utilized (3.8 to one [P = .00001]), pump volume (28.7 to 2.7 L [P = .00001]), and estimated blood loss (408 to 29 mL [P = .008]). In addition, port size changed from 10 mm to 5 mm. Chorioamniotic separation (31 of 66), premature rupture of membranes (32 of 66), chorioamnionitis (12 of 66), and fetal death (10 of 66) continued to be significant complications. Conclusions: Fetal endoscopic surgery over the last 6 years has evolved toward shorter operating time, the use of smaller and fewer ports, decreased pump fluid exchange, and decreased blood loss, with the types of cases centered on twin-twin transfusion syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1700-1702
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2002


  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • Fetal surgery
  • Fetendo
  • Twin-twin transfusion syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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