Feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: Implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections

Justin Lee, Jennifer L. Malmberg, Britta A. Wood, Sahaja Hladky, Ryan Troyer, Melody Roelke, Mark Cunningham, Roy McBride, Winston Vickers, Walter M Boyce, Erin Boydston, Laurel Serieys, Seth Riley, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) for a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study, we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- versus intraspecies transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analyses of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrate that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to that in bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but we did not detect selection among 20 PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support the hypothesis that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals that intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following the initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to the emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere02134-16
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume91
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Bobcat
  • Cross-species transmission
  • Feline
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus
  • Mountain lion
  • Retroviruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

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    Lee, J., Malmberg, J. L., Wood, B. A., Hladky, S., Troyer, R., Roelke, M., Cunningham, M., McBride, R., Vickers, W., Boyce, W. M., Boydston, E., Serieys, L., Riley, S., Crooks, K., & VandeWoude, S. (2017). Feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: Implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections. Journal of Virology, 91(5), [e02134-16]. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02134-16