Feasibility and Impact of Remote Glucose Monitoring Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes: Single-Center Pilot Study

Stephanie Crossen, Crystal Romero, Allison Reggiardo, Jimi Michel, Nicole Glaser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Caregivers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) maintain close contact with providers for several weeks to facilitate rapid adjustments in insulin dosing regimens. Traditionally, patient glucose values are relayed by telephone for provider feedback, but digital health technology can now enable the remote sharing of glucose data via mobile apps. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of remote glucose monitoring in a population of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed T1D and to explore whether remote monitoring alters habits for self-review of glucose data or perceived ease of provider contact in this population as compared to a nonrandomized control group. Methods: Data were collected from families who chose to participate in remote monitoring (intervention group) as well as from patients receiving usual care (control group). The intervention group received Bluetooth-capable glucose meters and Apple iPod Touch devices. Patient-generated glucose data were passively relayed from the meter to the iPod Touch and then to both the electronic health record (EHR) and a third-party diabetes data platform, Tidepool. The principal investigator reviewed glucose data daily in the EHR and Tidepool and contacted the participants as needed for insulin dose adjustments during the time between hospital discharge and first clinic appointment. Families in the control group received usual care, which involved keeping written records of glucose values and contacting the diabetes team daily by telephone to relay data and receive treatment recommendations. A total of 40 families (20 for the intervention group and 20 for the control group) participated in the study. All families were surveyed at 1 month and 6 months regarding self-review of glucose data and ease of contacting the diabetes team. Results: Patient-generated glucose data were remotely accessible for 100% of the participants via Tidepool and for 85% via the EHR. Survey data indicated that families in the intervention group were more likely than those in the control group to review their glucose data using mobile health apps after 1 month (P<.001), but by 6 months, this difference had disappeared. Perceived ease of contacting the clinical team for assistance was lower for the intervention group after 6 months (when receiving usual care) in comparison to during the intervention period (P=.48) and compared with a control group who did not have exposure to remote monitoring (P=.03). Conclusions: Remote glucose monitoring is feasible among pediatric patients with newly diagnosed T1D and may be associated with the earlier adoption of mobile health apps for self-management. The use of broadscale remote monitoring for T1D in the future will depend on improved access to Bluetooth-enabled mobile devices for all patients, improved interoperability of mobile health apps to enable data transfer on Android as well as Apple devices, and new provider workflows to handle large-scale panel management based on patient-generated health data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere33639
JournalJMIR Diabetes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Application
  • Diabetes
  • Mobile health
  • Patient-generated data
  • Pediatrics
  • Remote monitoring
  • T1D
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management
  • Biomedical Engineering


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