Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses: 314 cases (1990-2007)

Tiffany L. Sarrafian, James Case, Hailu Kinde, Barbara M. Daft, Deryck H. Read, Janet D. Moore, Francisco A Uzal, Susan M Stover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective-To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Procedures-Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Results-Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71%) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)935-942
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume241
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012

Fingerprint

Quarter Horse
racehorses
Horses
Wounds and Injuries
death
horses
bones
forelimbs
joints (animal)
incidence
Metatarsophalangeal Joint
Metacarpophalangeal Joint
Forelimb
Bone Remodeling
Wrist
animals
Cause of Death
Joints

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses : 314 cases (1990-2007). / Sarrafian, Tiffany L.; Case, James; Kinde, Hailu; Daft, Barbara M.; Read, Deryck H.; Moore, Janet D.; Uzal, Francisco A; Stover, Susan M.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 241, No. 7, 01.10.2012, p. 935-942.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{2b86c4c66ae04657a84832f5d49d829a,
title = "Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses: 314 cases (1990-2007)",
abstract = "Objective-To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Procedures-Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Results-Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71{\%}) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84{\%}) and in the forelimbs (81{\%}). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40{\%}) and carpal (24{\%}), vertebral (10{\%}), and scapular (8{\%}) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3{\%} of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.",
author = "Sarrafian, {Tiffany L.} and James Case and Hailu Kinde and Daft, {Barbara M.} and Read, {Deryck H.} and Moore, {Janet D.} and Uzal, {Francisco A} and Stover, {Susan M}",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2460/javma.241.7.935",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "241",
pages = "935--942",
journal = "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association",
issn = "0003-1488",
publisher = "American Veterinary Medical Association",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses

T2 - 314 cases (1990-2007)

AU - Sarrafian, Tiffany L.

AU - Case, James

AU - Kinde, Hailu

AU - Daft, Barbara M.

AU - Read, Deryck H.

AU - Moore, Janet D.

AU - Uzal, Francisco A

AU - Stover, Susan M

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - Objective-To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Procedures-Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Results-Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71%) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.

AB - Objective-To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Procedures-Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Results-Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71%) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84867091554&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84867091554&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2460/javma.241.7.935

DO - 10.2460/javma.241.7.935

M3 - Article

C2 - 23013508

AN - SCOPUS:84867091554

VL - 241

SP - 935

EP - 942

JO - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

JF - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SN - 0003-1488

IS - 7

ER -