Factors Associated with Receipt of Smoking Cessation Advice and Assistance by Health Professionals among Latino and Non-Latino White Smokers with Medicaid Insurance in California

Cindy V. Valencia, Melanie Dove, Elisa K. Tong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Importance: Nationally, Latino smokers are less likely than non-Latino White smokers to receive advice and assistance from health professionals to quit smoking. California's Medicaid expansion included the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's comprehensive tobacco cessation benefits; however, it is unknown whether expanded coverage helped resolve this disparity. Objective: To examine the association between race and ethnicity (Latino and non-Latino White) and health professional cessation advice and assistance among smokers with Medi-Cal insurance in the post-Affordable Care Act period. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted with the 2014 and 2016-2018 California Health Interview Survey. A total of 1861 Latino and non-Latino White current smokers aged 18 to 64 years who had Medi-Cal insurance and consulted a health professional in the past 12 months were included. Data were analyzed between December 1, 2019, and April 30, 2021. Exposure: Race and ethnicity classified as Latino or non-Latino White. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes were receipt of health professional advice to quit smoking or assistance to quit in the past 12 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and ethnicity and each outcome, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, smoking behavior, health care factors, and acculturation measures. All estimates were weighted to adjust for the complex survey design. Results: Among 1861 participants, 44.8% were Latino, 53.8% were aged 40 years or older (mean [SE], 39.7 [0.79] years), 54.1% were male, and 59.9% had less than a high school education. Latino smokers were less likely than non-Latino White smokers to receive health professional advice (38.3% Latino smokers vs 55.3% non-Latino White smokers) or assistance (21.8% Latino smokers vs 35.7% non-Latino White smokers). In the unadjusted model, compared with non-Latino White smokers, Latino smokers were less likely to receive advice (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86) and also less likely to receive assistance (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-1.00). However, in the adjusted model, race was no longer significant. Smokers with more office visits (adjusted OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.61-3.70) and those with at least 1 chronic disease (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.15-3.43) were more likely to receive advice from a health professional. Additionally, daily smokers compared with nondaily smokers (adjusted OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.03-5.13) were more likely to receive assistance. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, more office visits, having a chronic disease, and daily smoking were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving smoking cessation advice or assistance. Use of strategies to engage tobacco users outside of the clinic, such as proactive outreach and community-based engagement, may help address this disparity..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2144207
JournalJAMA Network Open
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 19 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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