Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Stewardship Practices on California Dairies: One Year Post Senate Bill 27

Essam M. Abdelfattah, Pius S. Ekong, Emmanuel Okello, Deniece R. Williams, Betsy M. Karle, Terry W. Lehenbauer, Sharif S. Aly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The current study is aimed at identifying the factors associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use and stewardship practices on conventional California (CA) dairies a year after CA Senate Bill 27. Methods: Responses from 113 out of 1282 dairies mailed a questionnaire in 2019 were analyzed to estimate the associations between management practices and six outcomes including producer familiarity with medically important antimicrobial drugs (MIADs), restricted use of MIADs previously available over the counter (OTC), use of alternatives to AMD, changes in on-farm management practices, changes in AMD costs, and animal health status in dairies. Results: Producers who reported having a veterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR) and tracking AMD withdrawal intervals had greater odds of being familiar with the MIADs. Producers who began or increased the use of preventive alternatives to AMD in 2019 had higher odds (OR = 3.23, p = 0.04) of decreased use of MIADs previously available OTC compared to those who did not. Changes in management practices to prevent disease outbreak and the use of diagnostics to guide treatment were associated with producer-reported improved animal health. In addition, our study identified record keeping (associated with familiarity with MIADs), use of alternatives to AMD (associated with management changes to prevent diseases and decreased AMD costs), and use of diagnostics in treatment decisions (associated with reported better animal health) as factors associated with AMD stewardship. Conclusions: Our survey findings can be incorporated in outreach education materials to promote antimicrobial stewardship practices in dairies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number165
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Antimicrobial drug use
  • Antimicrobial stewardship
  • Dairy cattle
  • Knowledge
  • Logistic regression models
  • Machine learning
  • Survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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