The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is often used to assess sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about its factor structure in younger children with ASD. We evaluated alternative factor structures and measurement invariance for CSHQ items in 2- to 4-year-olds with ASD or typical development (TD). Bifactor models indicated subscales’ variance was subsumed by a general factor predominantly reflecting sleep initiation and nighttime awakening items. A factor consisting of 7 of these items was measurement invariant across ASD and TD. Thus, comparisons between young children with ASD and TD is appropriate for a measure composed of 7 CSHQ items relating to sleep initiation and awakenings but not for other CSHQ item composites.
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Children's sleep habits questionnaire
- Factor analysis
- Measurement invariance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology