Background: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is a potentially fatal fungal infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Objective: To determine whether PJP prophylaxis is required in the non-human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) immunocompromised patient and, if so, the optimal prophylactic therapy. Methods: A thorough literature review, with the appropriate MeSH terms, was conducted using PubMed, Medline, and The Cochrane Database. A number of cases describing PJP in patients with various systemic diseases and immunosuppressive medications, along with a Cochrane review, were highlighted. Results: Although there are a number of case reports in the literature, the only collagen vascular disease with an increased incidence of PJP is Wegener granulomatosis. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole continues to be the prophylaxis of choice for PJP. Conclusion: There is currently no evidence to recommend PJP prophylaxis in the non-HIV/AIDS immunocompromised population. If physicians do decide to use prophylaxis, they should always weigh the benefits with the potential risks. Further studies are needed to better quantify the risks of PJP with immunosuppressive medications.
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