S100B, established as prevalent protein of the central nervous system, is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brain barrier disruption and often also a marker of brain injury. However, reports of extracranial sources of S100B, especially from adipose tissue, may confound its interpretation in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to characterize the tissue specificity of S100B and assess how extracranial sources of S100B affect serum levels. The extracranial sources of S100B were determined by analyzing nine different types of human tissues by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, brain and adipose tissue were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. A study of 200 subjects was undertaken to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and S100B serum levels. We also measured the levels of S100B homo- and heterodimers in serum quantitatively after blood-brain barrier disruption. Analysis of human tissues by ELISA and Western blot revealed variable levels of S100B expression. By ELISA, brain tissue expressed the highest S100B levels. Similarly, Western blot measurements revealed that brain tissue expressed high levels of S100B but comparable levels were found in skeletal muscle. Mass spectrometry of brain and adipose tissue confirmed the presence of S100B but also revealed the presence of S100A1. The analysis of 200 subjects revealed no statistically significant relationship between BMI and S100B levels. The main species of S100B released from the brain was the B-B homodimer. Our results show that extracranial sources of S100B do not affect serum levels. Thus, the diagnostic value of S100B and its negative predictive value in neurological diseases in intact subjects (without traumatic brain or bodily injury from accident or surgery) are not compromised in the clinical setting.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)