Protein kinase A, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent enzyme, normally exists within mammalian cells; however, in cancer cells, it can leak out and be found in the serum. Extracellular cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (ECPKA) has been determined to increase in the serum of cancer-bearing dogs. However, there have been no reports in the veterinary literature on serum ECPKA autoantibody (ECPKA-Ab) expression in dogs with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate ECPKA-Ab and C-reactive protein (CRP) as serum biomarkers for cancer in dogs. ECPKA-Ab and CRP levels were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples from dogs with malignant tumours (n = 167), benign tumours (n = 42), or non-tumour disease (n = 155) and from healthy control dogs (n = 123). ECPKA-Ab and CRP levels were significantly higher in the dogs with malignant tumours than in those with benign tumours or non-tumour diseases, as well as in the healthy controls (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). There was a significant positive correlation between the neoplastic index, which was developed using ECPKA-Ab and CRP levels, and the presence of cancer in dogs (P < 0.001); the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was estimated to be >0.85 (P < 0.001). In conclusion, ECPKA-Ab is a potential serum biomarker for a broad spectrum of cancers. Combined measurement of CRP and ECPKA-Ab levels in serum improves the sensitivity and accuracy of a diagnosis of cancer in dogs.
- C-reactive protein
- extracellular protein kinase A
ASJC Scopus subject areas