Exposure to bovine leukemia virus is associated with breast cancer: A case-control study

Gertrude Case Buehring, Hua Min Shen, Hanne M Jensen, Diana L. Jin, Mark Hudes, Gladys Block

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background Age, reproductive history, hormones, genetics, and lifestyle are known risk factors for breast cancer, but the agents that initiate cellular changes from normal to malignant are not understood. We previously detected bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a common oncogenic virus of cattle, in the breast epithelium of humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of BLV DNA in human mammary epithelium is associated with breast cancer. Methods This was a case-control study of archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast tissues from 239 donors, received 2002-2008 from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Case definition as breast cancer versus normal (women with no history of breast cancer) was established through medical records and examination of tissues by an anatomical pathologist. Breast exposure to BLV was determined by in situ-PCR detection of a biomarker, BLV DNA, localized within mammary epithelium. Results The frequency of BLV DNA in mammary epithelium from women with breast cancer (59%) was significantly higher than in normal controls (29%) (multiply- adjusted odds ratio = 3.07, confidence interval = 1.66-5.69, p = .0004, attributable risk = 37%). In women with premalignant breast changes the frequency of BLV DNA was intermediate (38%) between that of women with breast cancer and normal controls (p for trend <.001). Conclusions Among the specimens in this study, the presence of amplified BLV DNA was significantly associated with breast cancer. The odds ratio magnitude was comparable to those of wellestablished breast cancer risk factors related to reproductive history, hormones, and lifestyle and was exceeded only by risk factors related to genetics (familial breast cancer), high dose ionizing radiation, and age. These findings have the potential for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0134304
JournalPLoS One
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2 2015

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Bovine Leukemia Virus
Bovine leukemia virus
case-control studies
Viruses
breast neoplasms
Case-Control Studies
Breast Neoplasms
breasts
Breast
DNA
epithelium
Tissue
Oncogenic viruses
Reproductive History
Epithelium
risk factors
Hormones
Life Style
odds ratio
lifestyle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Exposure to bovine leukemia virus is associated with breast cancer : A case-control study. / Buehring, Gertrude Case; Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M; Jin, Diana L.; Hudes, Mark; Block, Gladys.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 10, No. 9, e0134304, 02.09.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Buehring, Gertrude Case ; Shen, Hua Min ; Jensen, Hanne M ; Jin, Diana L. ; Hudes, Mark ; Block, Gladys. / Exposure to bovine leukemia virus is associated with breast cancer : A case-control study. In: PLoS One. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 9.
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abstract = "Background Age, reproductive history, hormones, genetics, and lifestyle are known risk factors for breast cancer, but the agents that initiate cellular changes from normal to malignant are not understood. We previously detected bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a common oncogenic virus of cattle, in the breast epithelium of humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of BLV DNA in human mammary epithelium is associated with breast cancer. Methods This was a case-control study of archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast tissues from 239 donors, received 2002-2008 from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Case definition as breast cancer versus normal (women with no history of breast cancer) was established through medical records and examination of tissues by an anatomical pathologist. Breast exposure to BLV was determined by in situ-PCR detection of a biomarker, BLV DNA, localized within mammary epithelium. Results The frequency of BLV DNA in mammary epithelium from women with breast cancer (59{\%}) was significantly higher than in normal controls (29{\%}) (multiply- adjusted odds ratio = 3.07, confidence interval = 1.66-5.69, p = .0004, attributable risk = 37{\%}). In women with premalignant breast changes the frequency of BLV DNA was intermediate (38{\%}) between that of women with breast cancer and normal controls (p for trend <.001). Conclusions Among the specimens in this study, the presence of amplified BLV DNA was significantly associated with breast cancer. The odds ratio magnitude was comparable to those of wellestablished breast cancer risk factors related to reproductive history, hormones, and lifestyle and was exceeded only by risk factors related to genetics (familial breast cancer), high dose ionizing radiation, and age. These findings have the potential for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.",
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