Evolution of the tapetum

Ivan R. Schwab, Carlton K. Yuen, Nedim C. Buyukmihci, Thomas N. Blankenship, Paul G FitzGerald, Ralph C. Eagle, Alfredo A. Sadun, Terry J. Ernest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To review, contrast, and compare current known tapetal mechanisms and review the implications for the evolution of the tapetum. Methods: Ocular specimens of representative fish in key piscine families, including Acipenseridae, Cyprinidae, Chacidae; the reptilian family Crocodylidae; the mammalian family Felidae; and the Lepidopteran family Sphingidae were reviewed and compared histologically. All known varieties of tapeta were examined and classified and compared to the known cladogram representing the evolution of each specific family. Results: Types of tapeta include tapetum cellulosum, tapetum fibrosum, retinal tapetum, invertebrate pigmented tapetum, and invertebrate thin-film tapetum. All but the invertebrate pigmented tapetum were examined histologically. Review of the evolutionary cladogram and comparison with known tapeta suggest that the tapetum evolved in the Devonian period 345 to 395 million years ago. Tapeta developed independently in at least three separate orders in invertebrates and vertebrates, and yet all have surprisingly similar mechanisms of light reflection, including thin-film interference, diffusely reflecting tapeta, Mie scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and perhaps orthogonal retroreflection. Conclusion: Tapeta are found in invertebrates and vertebrates and display different physical mechanisms of reflection. Each tapetum reflects the wavelengths most relevant to the species' ecological niche. With this work, we have hypothesized that the tapetum evolved independently in both invertebrates and vertebrates as early as the Devonian period and coincided with an explosion of life forms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-200
Number of pages14
JournalTransactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
Volume100
StatePublished - 2002

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Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Cyprinidae
Explosions
Felidae
Fishes
Light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Schwab, I. R., Yuen, C. K., Buyukmihci, N. C., Blankenship, T. N., FitzGerald, P. G., Eagle, R. C., ... Ernest, T. J. (2002). Evolution of the tapetum. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, 100, 187-200.

Evolution of the tapetum. / Schwab, Ivan R.; Yuen, Carlton K.; Buyukmihci, Nedim C.; Blankenship, Thomas N.; FitzGerald, Paul G; Eagle, Ralph C.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Ernest, Terry J.

In: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, Vol. 100, 2002, p. 187-200.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schwab, IR, Yuen, CK, Buyukmihci, NC, Blankenship, TN, FitzGerald, PG, Eagle, RC, Sadun, AA & Ernest, TJ 2002, 'Evolution of the tapetum', Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 100, pp. 187-200.
Schwab IR, Yuen CK, Buyukmihci NC, Blankenship TN, FitzGerald PG, Eagle RC et al. Evolution of the tapetum. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 2002;100:187-200.
Schwab, Ivan R. ; Yuen, Carlton K. ; Buyukmihci, Nedim C. ; Blankenship, Thomas N. ; FitzGerald, Paul G ; Eagle, Ralph C. ; Sadun, Alfredo A. ; Ernest, Terry J. / Evolution of the tapetum. In: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 2002 ; Vol. 100. pp. 187-200.
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