Evidence-based medicine in hand surgery: Clinical applications and future direction

Brian Zafonte, Robert M Szabo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Evidence-based medicine empowers physicians to systematically analyze published data so as to quickly formulate treatment plans that deliver safe, robust, and cost-effective patient care. In this article, we sample some areas in hand and upper extremity surgery where the evidence base is strong enough that it has or should have unified treatment strategies; we identify some problems where good evidence has failed to unify treatment, and discuss problems for which evidence is still lacking but needed because treatment remains controversial. We also discuss circumstances in which level 4 evidence is more likely than randomized trials to guide treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-283
Number of pages15
JournalHand Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014


  • Evidence-based medicine
  • Hand surgery
  • Upper extremity surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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