Evaluation of xylazine an ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in horses

Khursheed R. Mama, Ann E. Wagner, Eugene Steffey, Cynthia Kollias-Baker, Peter W. Hellyer, Anne E. Golden, Lucien F. Brevard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective - To evaluate the use of xylazine and ketamine for total IV anesthesia in horses. Animal - 8 horses. Procedure - Anesthetic induction was performed on 4 occasions in each horse with xylazine (0.75 mg/kg, IV), guaifenesin (75 mg/kg, IV), and ketamine (2 mg/kg, IV). Intravenous infusions of xylazine and ketamine were then started by use of 1 of 6 treatments as follows for which 35, 90, 120, and 150 represent infusion dosages (μg/kg/min) and X and K represent xylazine and ketamine, respectively: X35+K90 with 100% inspired oxygen (O2), X35+K120-O2, X35+K150-O2, X70+K90-O2, K150-O2, and X35+K120 with a 21% fraction of inspired oxygen (ie, air). Cardiopulmonary measurements were performed. Response to a noxious electrical stimulus was observed at 20, 40, and 60 minutes after induction. Times to achieve sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. Quality of sedation, induction, and recovery to sternal recumbency and standing were subjectively evaluated. Results - Heart rate and cardiac index were higher and total peripheral resistance lower in K150-O2 and X35+K120-air groups. The mean arterial pressure was highest in the X35+K120-air group and lowest in the K150-O2 group (125 ± 6 vs 85 ± 8 at 20 minutes, respectively). Mean PaO2 was lowest in the X35+K120-air group. Times to sternal recumbency and standing were shortest for horses receiving K150-O2 (23 ± 6 minutes and 33 ± 8 minutes, respectively) and longest for those receiving X70+K90-O2 (58 ± 28 minutes and 69 ± 27 minutes, respectively). Conclusions and clinical relevance - Infusions of xylazine and ketamine may be used with oxygen supplementation to maintain 60 minutes of anesthesia in healthy adult horses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1002-1007
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume66
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2005

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Xylazine
Intravenous Anesthesia
xylazine
Ketamine
ketamine
Horses
anesthesia
horses
Air
air
Oxygen
oxygen
Guaifenesin
Anesthesia
guaifenesin
sedation
Intravenous Infusions
anesthetics
Vascular Resistance
Anesthetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Mama, K. R., Wagner, A. E., Steffey, E., Kollias-Baker, C., Hellyer, P. W., Golden, A. E., & Brevard, L. F. (2005). Evaluation of xylazine an ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 66(6), 1002-1007. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1002

Evaluation of xylazine an ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in horses. / Mama, Khursheed R.; Wagner, Ann E.; Steffey, Eugene; Kollias-Baker, Cynthia; Hellyer, Peter W.; Golden, Anne E.; Brevard, Lucien F.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 66, No. 6, 01.06.2005, p. 1002-1007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mama, KR, Wagner, AE, Steffey, E, Kollias-Baker, C, Hellyer, PW, Golden, AE & Brevard, LF 2005, 'Evaluation of xylazine an ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in horses', American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1002-1007. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1002
Mama, Khursheed R. ; Wagner, Ann E. ; Steffey, Eugene ; Kollias-Baker, Cynthia ; Hellyer, Peter W. ; Golden, Anne E. ; Brevard, Lucien F. / Evaluation of xylazine an ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in horses. In: American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2005 ; Vol. 66, No. 6. pp. 1002-1007.
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abstract = "Objective - To evaluate the use of xylazine and ketamine for total IV anesthesia in horses. Animal - 8 horses. Procedure - Anesthetic induction was performed on 4 occasions in each horse with xylazine (0.75 mg/kg, IV), guaifenesin (75 mg/kg, IV), and ketamine (2 mg/kg, IV). Intravenous infusions of xylazine and ketamine were then started by use of 1 of 6 treatments as follows for which 35, 90, 120, and 150 represent infusion dosages (μg/kg/min) and X and K represent xylazine and ketamine, respectively: X35+K90 with 100{\%} inspired oxygen (O2), X35+K120-O2, X35+K150-O2, X70+K90-O2, K150-O2, and X35+K120 with a 21{\%} fraction of inspired oxygen (ie, air). Cardiopulmonary measurements were performed. Response to a noxious electrical stimulus was observed at 20, 40, and 60 minutes after induction. Times to achieve sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. Quality of sedation, induction, and recovery to sternal recumbency and standing were subjectively evaluated. Results - Heart rate and cardiac index were higher and total peripheral resistance lower in K150-O2 and X35+K120-air groups. The mean arterial pressure was highest in the X35+K120-air group and lowest in the K150-O2 group (125 ± 6 vs 85 ± 8 at 20 minutes, respectively). Mean PaO2 was lowest in the X35+K120-air group. Times to sternal recumbency and standing were shortest for horses receiving K150-O2 (23 ± 6 minutes and 33 ± 8 minutes, respectively) and longest for those receiving X70+K90-O2 (58 ± 28 minutes and 69 ± 27 minutes, respectively). Conclusions and clinical relevance - Infusions of xylazine and ketamine may be used with oxygen supplementation to maintain 60 minutes of anesthesia in healthy adult horses.",
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AU - Brevard, Lucien F.

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