Evaluation of udder health and mastitis in llamas

Lynnel L. Rowan, Dawn E. Morin, Walter L. Hurley, Roger D. Shanks, Ibulaimu Kakoma, Walter E. Hoffmann, Thomas E. Goetz, James S Cullor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To investigate intramammary infections in llamas, identify the pathogens responsible, and determine whether effects of intramammary infection could be detected by use of mastitis indicator tests commonly used for cows. Design - Observational study. Animals - 100 llamas on 10 farms. Procedure - Milk samples were evaluated by bacterial culturing and by determination of somatic cell count (SCC), using direct microscopic and automated counting methods, California Mastitis Test score, pH, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity. Correlation coefficients were determined among the various mastitis indicator tests, and test results were determined for milk from infected and uninfected glands. Results - Evidence of intramammary infection was evident in 76 of 369 (21%) milk samples, with 54 of 94 (57%) llamas having at least 1 infected gland. Staphylococcus sp other than Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens. None of the llamas had clinical signs of mastitis, and significant differences were not detected in SCC, California Mastitis Test score, pH, or N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity between infected and uninfected samples. California Mastitis Test scores were negative or trace for 307 of 313 (98%) samples, and SCC were low. In contrast, pH and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity of milk from uninfected glands were higher than values reported for milk from uninfected cows, and neither variable was significantly correlated with the number of somatic cells in samples of llama milk. Clinical Implications - Although intramammary infections develop in llamas, inflammation (mastitis) appears to be rare. Values for mastitis indicator tests used for cows cannot be directly extrapolated to llamas. Subclinical mastitis is apparently not an important problem in llamas in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1457-1463
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume209
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 15 1996

Fingerprint

New World Camelids
Animal Mammary Glands
llamas
Mastitis
udders
mastitis
Health
Milk
milk
Hexosaminidases
somatic cell count
Cell Count
cows
infection
Infection
sampling
testing
pathogens
observational studies
Staphylococcus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Rowan, L. L., Morin, D. E., Hurley, W. L., Shanks, R. D., Kakoma, I., Hoffmann, W. E., ... Cullor, J. S. (1996). Evaluation of udder health and mastitis in llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(8), 1457-1463.

Evaluation of udder health and mastitis in llamas. / Rowan, Lynnel L.; Morin, Dawn E.; Hurley, Walter L.; Shanks, Roger D.; Kakoma, Ibulaimu; Hoffmann, Walter E.; Goetz, Thomas E.; Cullor, James S.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 209, No. 8, 15.10.1996, p. 1457-1463.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rowan, LL, Morin, DE, Hurley, WL, Shanks, RD, Kakoma, I, Hoffmann, WE, Goetz, TE & Cullor, JS 1996, 'Evaluation of udder health and mastitis in llamas', Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 209, no. 8, pp. 1457-1463.
Rowan LL, Morin DE, Hurley WL, Shanks RD, Kakoma I, Hoffmann WE et al. Evaluation of udder health and mastitis in llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1996 Oct 15;209(8):1457-1463.
Rowan, Lynnel L. ; Morin, Dawn E. ; Hurley, Walter L. ; Shanks, Roger D. ; Kakoma, Ibulaimu ; Hoffmann, Walter E. ; Goetz, Thomas E. ; Cullor, James S. / Evaluation of udder health and mastitis in llamas. In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1996 ; Vol. 209, No. 8. pp. 1457-1463.
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abstract = "Objective - To investigate intramammary infections in llamas, identify the pathogens responsible, and determine whether effects of intramammary infection could be detected by use of mastitis indicator tests commonly used for cows. Design - Observational study. Animals - 100 llamas on 10 farms. Procedure - Milk samples were evaluated by bacterial culturing and by determination of somatic cell count (SCC), using direct microscopic and automated counting methods, California Mastitis Test score, pH, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity. Correlation coefficients were determined among the various mastitis indicator tests, and test results were determined for milk from infected and uninfected glands. Results - Evidence of intramammary infection was evident in 76 of 369 (21{\%}) milk samples, with 54 of 94 (57{\%}) llamas having at least 1 infected gland. Staphylococcus sp other than Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens. None of the llamas had clinical signs of mastitis, and significant differences were not detected in SCC, California Mastitis Test score, pH, or N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity between infected and uninfected samples. California Mastitis Test scores were negative or trace for 307 of 313 (98{\%}) samples, and SCC were low. In contrast, pH and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity of milk from uninfected glands were higher than values reported for milk from uninfected cows, and neither variable was significantly correlated with the number of somatic cells in samples of llama milk. Clinical Implications - Although intramammary infections develop in llamas, inflammation (mastitis) appears to be rare. Values for mastitis indicator tests used for cows cannot be directly extrapolated to llamas. Subclinical mastitis is apparently not an important problem in llamas in the United States.",
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