Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and characteristics of dogs with urolithiasis

25,499 cases (1985-2006)

Winnie W. Low, Justin M. Uhl, Philip H Kass, Annette L. Ruby, Joellen L Westropp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To evaluate trends in urolith composition and urolithiasis in dogs during the past 21 years. Design - Retrospective case series. Sample Population - 25,499 uroliths and the dogs from which they were obtained. Procedures - Database of the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched from January 1985 through December 2006. All uroliths from dogs and the accompanying submission forms were evaluated. Age, sex, breed, and urolith location were recorded. Results - Minerals identified in uroliths included struvite, calcium oxalate (CaOx), urate, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, sulfa drug, xanthine, and newberyite. Although more struvite-containing uroliths were submitted during this period, a significant decrease in the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths submitted as a percentage of all uroliths submitted was detected. Also, a significant increase in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths submitted over time was detected. There was a significant nonlinear decrease in submission of urate-, silica-, and cystine-containing uroliths. The CaOx-, cystine-, and silica-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from male dogs; struvite- and urate-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from female dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-An increase in the proportion of CaOx uroliths submitted over time was detected. Reasons for long-term changes in this trend were likely multifactorial and could have included alterations in diet formulations and water consumption and possibly the fact that people favor ownership of breeds more prone to developing CaOx-containing uroliths. The decrease in metabolic uroliths could have been related to better breeding practices and increased awareness of results of genetic studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-200
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume236
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2010

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bladder calculi
Calcium Oxalate
Urolithiasis
Dogs
Cystine
Uric Acid
dogs
Silicon Dioxide
magnesium ammonium phosphate
calcium oxalate
Apatites
Urinary Calculi
Xanthine
Ownership
cystine
silica
Drinking
Breeding
Minerals
Potassium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and characteristics of dogs with urolithiasis : 25,499 cases (1985-2006). / Low, Winnie W.; Uhl, Justin M.; Kass, Philip H; Ruby, Annette L.; Westropp, Joellen L.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 236, No. 2, 15.01.2010, p. 193-200.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective - To evaluate trends in urolith composition and urolithiasis in dogs during the past 21 years. Design - Retrospective case series. Sample Population - 25,499 uroliths and the dogs from which they were obtained. Procedures - Database of the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched from January 1985 through December 2006. All uroliths from dogs and the accompanying submission forms were evaluated. Age, sex, breed, and urolith location were recorded. Results - Minerals identified in uroliths included struvite, calcium oxalate (CaOx), urate, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, sulfa drug, xanthine, and newberyite. Although more struvite-containing uroliths were submitted during this period, a significant decrease in the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths submitted as a percentage of all uroliths submitted was detected. Also, a significant increase in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths submitted over time was detected. There was a significant nonlinear decrease in submission of urate-, silica-, and cystine-containing uroliths. The CaOx-, cystine-, and silica-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from male dogs; struvite- and urate-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from female dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-An increase in the proportion of CaOx uroliths submitted over time was detected. Reasons for long-term changes in this trend were likely multifactorial and could have included alterations in diet formulations and water consumption and possibly the fact that people favor ownership of breeds more prone to developing CaOx-containing uroliths. The decrease in metabolic uroliths could have been related to better breeding practices and increased awareness of results of genetic studies.",
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