Evaluation of the Thermal Antinociceptive Effects of a Sustained-Release Buprenorphine Formulation after Intramuscular Administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

David Guzman, Susanne M. Ceulemans, Hugues Beaufrère, Glenn H. Olsen, Joanne R Paul-Murphy

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Abstract

Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine has a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared with other opioids in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects, sedative effects, and duration of action of sustained-release buprenorphine given intramusculary in American kestrels, 12 adult kestrels (8 females and 4 males) were used in a randomized masked complete-crossover experimental design. Buprenorphine SR LAB (1.8 mg/kg) or a control solution were administered intramuscularly. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and at 1.5, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3-5 minutes before each time point, and adverse effects were monitored at these times. Buprenorphine SR LAB significantly increased thermal thresholds at 6, 12, and 24 hours and resulted in mild sedation according to the mean sedation-agitation scores comparing the treatment and control groups. Depending on the severity and type of pain, adjunctive therapy, and individual response, Buprenorphine SR LAB administered at 1.8 mg/kg IM to American kestrels would require administration every 24 hours to manage pain. Further pharmacodynamic and clinical evaluations are warranted in kestrels and other Falconiformes, Accipitriformes, and Strigiformes to establish accurate dosing recommendations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

Fingerprint

Falco sparverius
buprenorphine
Buprenorphine
analgesic effect
intramuscular injection
Hot Temperature
heat
sedation
pain
agitation
narcotics
Falconiformes
adverse effects
Raptors
Strigiformes
Pain
duration
sedatives
Opioid Receptors
pharmacology

Keywords

  • American kestrels
  • analgesia
  • avian
  • buprenorphine
  • Falco sparverius
  • opioids
  • pharmacodynamics
  • raptor
  • sustained-release

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals

Cite this

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title = "Evaluation of the Thermal Antinociceptive Effects of a Sustained-Release Buprenorphine Formulation after Intramuscular Administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)",
abstract = "Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine has a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared with other opioids in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects, sedative effects, and duration of action of sustained-release buprenorphine given intramusculary in American kestrels, 12 adult kestrels (8 females and 4 males) were used in a randomized masked complete-crossover experimental design. Buprenorphine SR LAB (1.8 mg/kg) or a control solution were administered intramuscularly. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and at 1.5, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3-5 minutes before each time point, and adverse effects were monitored at these times. Buprenorphine SR LAB significantly increased thermal thresholds at 6, 12, and 24 hours and resulted in mild sedation according to the mean sedation-agitation scores comparing the treatment and control groups. Depending on the severity and type of pain, adjunctive therapy, and individual response, Buprenorphine SR LAB administered at 1.8 mg/kg IM to American kestrels would require administration every 24 hours to manage pain. Further pharmacodynamic and clinical evaluations are warranted in kestrels and other Falconiformes, Accipitriformes, and Strigiformes to establish accurate dosing recommendations.",
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