Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G

Richard Van Vleck Pereira, M. L. Bicalho, V. S. Machado, S. Lima, A. G. Teixeira, L. D. Warnick, R. C. Bicalho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm2) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4±0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8±0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2866-2875
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume97
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Colostrum
bacterial contamination
whole milk
immunoglobulin G
Ultraviolet Rays
colostrum
ultraviolet radiation
Milk
Immunoglobulin G
milk
Acinetobacter baumannii
Mycobacterium smegmatis
Salmonella
Listeria
Escherichia coli
Bacteria
bacteria
Therapeutics
United States Department of Agriculture
Acinetobacter

Keywords

  • Colostrum
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Milk
  • Ultraviolet light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G. / Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Bicalho, M. L.; Machado, V. S.; Lima, S.; Teixeira, A. G.; Warnick, L. D.; Bicalho, R. C.

In: Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 97, No. 5, 2014, p. 2866-2875.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pereira, Richard Van Vleck ; Bicalho, M. L. ; Machado, V. S. ; Lima, S. ; Teixeira, A. G. ; Warnick, L. D. ; Bicalho, R. C. / Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G. In: Journal of Dairy Science. 2014 ; Vol. 97, No. 5. pp. 2866-2875.
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T1 - Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G

AU - Pereira, Richard Van Vleck

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AU - Machado, V. S.

AU - Lima, S.

AU - Teixeira, A. G.

AU - Warnick, L. D.

AU - Bicalho, R. C.

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N2 - Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm2) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4±0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8±0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum.

AB - Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm2) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4±0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8±0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5±0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4±0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum.

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