Evaluation of safety, humoral immune response and faecal shedding in horses inoculated with a modified-live bovine coronavirus vaccination

J. S.W. Prutton, S. Barnum, Nicola Pusterla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered an emerging enteric virus with reported morbidity rates ranging from 10 to 83% and fatality rates ranging from 7 to 27% in adult horses; a vaccine for ECoV is currently not available. This study investigated the safety, humoral response and viral shedding in horses inoculated with a commercially available modified-live bovine coronavirus (BCoV) vaccine. Twelve healthy adult horses were vaccinated twice, 3 weeks apart, either orally, intranasally or intrarectally. Two healthy unvaccinated horses served as sentinel controls. Following each vaccine administration, horses were monitored daily for physical abnormalities whilst the onset and duration of BCoV shedding was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in nasal secretions and faeces. Whole blood was collected every 3 weeks to determine BCoV-specific antibody response. With the exception of transient and self-limiting changes in faecal character observed in seven vaccinated and one control horse, no additional abnormal clinical findings were found in the study horses. Following the first and second vaccine administration, two and one horse, respectively, tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in nasal secretions 1-day post intranasal vaccination. No vaccinated horses tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in faeces following each vaccine administration. One of the two horses that shed BCoV seroconverted to BCoV after the first vaccine administration and an additional two vaccinated horses (oral and intrarectal) seroconverted to BCoV after the second vaccine administration. In conclusion, the results show that the modified-live BCoV is safe to administer to horses via various routes, causes minimal virus shedding and results in detectable antibodies to BCoV in 27% of the vaccinates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEquine Veterinary Education
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Bovine Coronavirus
Bovine coronavirus
Humoral Immunity
humoral immunity
Horses
Vaccination
vaccination
Safety
horses
Vaccines
vaccines
Coronavirus
quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Coronavirinae
Nose
Feces
Polymerase Chain Reaction
feces
secretion
Virus Shedding

Keywords

  • bovine coronavirus
  • corona
  • horse
  • vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine

Cite this

@article{5f23267d0a5243e9ac5f9426ebbe8a98,
title = "Evaluation of safety, humoral immune response and faecal shedding in horses inoculated with a modified-live bovine coronavirus vaccination",
abstract = "Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered an emerging enteric virus with reported morbidity rates ranging from 10 to 83{\%} and fatality rates ranging from 7 to 27{\%} in adult horses; a vaccine for ECoV is currently not available. This study investigated the safety, humoral response and viral shedding in horses inoculated with a commercially available modified-live bovine coronavirus (BCoV) vaccine. Twelve healthy adult horses were vaccinated twice, 3 weeks apart, either orally, intranasally or intrarectally. Two healthy unvaccinated horses served as sentinel controls. Following each vaccine administration, horses were monitored daily for physical abnormalities whilst the onset and duration of BCoV shedding was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in nasal secretions and faeces. Whole blood was collected every 3 weeks to determine BCoV-specific antibody response. With the exception of transient and self-limiting changes in faecal character observed in seven vaccinated and one control horse, no additional abnormal clinical findings were found in the study horses. Following the first and second vaccine administration, two and one horse, respectively, tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in nasal secretions 1-day post intranasal vaccination. No vaccinated horses tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in faeces following each vaccine administration. One of the two horses that shed BCoV seroconverted to BCoV after the first vaccine administration and an additional two vaccinated horses (oral and intrarectal) seroconverted to BCoV after the second vaccine administration. In conclusion, the results show that the modified-live BCoV is safe to administer to horses via various routes, causes minimal virus shedding and results in detectable antibodies to BCoV in 27{\%} of the vaccinates.",
keywords = "bovine coronavirus, corona, horse, vaccination",
author = "Prutton, {J. S.W.} and S. Barnum and Nicola Pusterla",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/eve.13175",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Equine Veterinary Education",
issn = "0957-7734",
publisher = "British Equine Veterinary Association",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of safety, humoral immune response and faecal shedding in horses inoculated with a modified-live bovine coronavirus vaccination

AU - Prutton, J. S.W.

AU - Barnum, S.

AU - Pusterla, Nicola

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered an emerging enteric virus with reported morbidity rates ranging from 10 to 83% and fatality rates ranging from 7 to 27% in adult horses; a vaccine for ECoV is currently not available. This study investigated the safety, humoral response and viral shedding in horses inoculated with a commercially available modified-live bovine coronavirus (BCoV) vaccine. Twelve healthy adult horses were vaccinated twice, 3 weeks apart, either orally, intranasally or intrarectally. Two healthy unvaccinated horses served as sentinel controls. Following each vaccine administration, horses were monitored daily for physical abnormalities whilst the onset and duration of BCoV shedding was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in nasal secretions and faeces. Whole blood was collected every 3 weeks to determine BCoV-specific antibody response. With the exception of transient and self-limiting changes in faecal character observed in seven vaccinated and one control horse, no additional abnormal clinical findings were found in the study horses. Following the first and second vaccine administration, two and one horse, respectively, tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in nasal secretions 1-day post intranasal vaccination. No vaccinated horses tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in faeces following each vaccine administration. One of the two horses that shed BCoV seroconverted to BCoV after the first vaccine administration and an additional two vaccinated horses (oral and intrarectal) seroconverted to BCoV after the second vaccine administration. In conclusion, the results show that the modified-live BCoV is safe to administer to horses via various routes, causes minimal virus shedding and results in detectable antibodies to BCoV in 27% of the vaccinates.

AB - Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered an emerging enteric virus with reported morbidity rates ranging from 10 to 83% and fatality rates ranging from 7 to 27% in adult horses; a vaccine for ECoV is currently not available. This study investigated the safety, humoral response and viral shedding in horses inoculated with a commercially available modified-live bovine coronavirus (BCoV) vaccine. Twelve healthy adult horses were vaccinated twice, 3 weeks apart, either orally, intranasally or intrarectally. Two healthy unvaccinated horses served as sentinel controls. Following each vaccine administration, horses were monitored daily for physical abnormalities whilst the onset and duration of BCoV shedding was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in nasal secretions and faeces. Whole blood was collected every 3 weeks to determine BCoV-specific antibody response. With the exception of transient and self-limiting changes in faecal character observed in seven vaccinated and one control horse, no additional abnormal clinical findings were found in the study horses. Following the first and second vaccine administration, two and one horse, respectively, tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in nasal secretions 1-day post intranasal vaccination. No vaccinated horses tested qPCR-positive for BCoV in faeces following each vaccine administration. One of the two horses that shed BCoV seroconverted to BCoV after the first vaccine administration and an additional two vaccinated horses (oral and intrarectal) seroconverted to BCoV after the second vaccine administration. In conclusion, the results show that the modified-live BCoV is safe to administer to horses via various routes, causes minimal virus shedding and results in detectable antibodies to BCoV in 27% of the vaccinates.

KW - bovine coronavirus

KW - corona

KW - horse

KW - vaccination

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071416330&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071416330&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/eve.13175

DO - 10.1111/eve.13175

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85071416330

JO - Equine Veterinary Education

JF - Equine Veterinary Education

SN - 0957-7734

ER -