Evaluation of pyrethrin and permethrin ground ultra-low volume applications for adult Culex control in rural and urban environments of the Coachella Valley of California

Hugh Lothrop, Branka Lothrop, Mark Palmer, Sarah Wheeler, Arturo Gutierrez, Donald Gomsi, William Reisen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations


Six experimental ground ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Pyrenone® 25-5 (0.0025 lb/acre) and Aqua-Reslin® (0.007 lb/acre) were made by truck-mounted Pro-Mist® or London Fog® equipment over 1-mi 2 study areas in rural and residential environments of the Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California. Efficacy of replicate applications was evaluated by measuring mortality among caged sentinel mosquitoes, by evaluating changes in host-seeking abundance at replicated dry ice-baited traps positioned along intersecting east-west and north-south transects, and by differential recapture patterns of marked females released near traps in the sprayed central core and unsprayed control areas. Sentinel mortality agreed well with estimates of droplet density measured by "slide spinners" and was affected by 1) distance of cages from the truck route; 2) landscape features, such as tree lines that created wind shadows; 3) irregular landscape that disrupted the particle cloud; 4) low wind speed that failed to carry the droplet cloud through the environment; and 5) failure of the droplets to penetrate dead airspace within stands of vegetation. Despite variable sentinel mortality, Culex tarsalis relative abundance in rural landscapes within and around our study areas always declined after ULV applications. Concurrent decreases in abundance at traps within sprayed and adjoining unsprayed areas confounded our estimates of percentage of control using Mulla's formula, which compares abundance in sprayed and unsprayed areas pre- and postspray. ULV applications significantly affected recapture patterns, in that recapture rates within the spray zone usually were significantly less than in the unsprayed zone. Collectively, our data indicated that ground ULV applications measurably reduced Cx. tarsalis abundance in rural areas of the Coachella Valley but that further evaluations may be necessary to validate efficacy on Culex quinquefasciatus populations in residential communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)190-207
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007



  • Adult mosquito control
  • Aqua-reslin
  • Culex tarsalis
  • Pyrenone 25-5
  • ULV ground applications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

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