Evaluation of Phrenic Nerve and Diaphragm Function with Peripheral Nerve Stimulation and M-Mode Ultrasonography in Potential Pediatric Phrenic Nerve or Diaphragm Pacing Candidates

Andrew J. Skalsky, Daniel J. Lesser, Craig M McDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Assessing phrenic nerve function in the setting of diaphragmatic paralysis in diaphragm pacing candidates can be challenging. Traditional imaging modalities and electrodiagnostic evaluations are technically difficult. Either modality alone is not a direct measure of the function of the phrenic nerve and diaphragm unit. In this article, the authors present their method for evaluating phrenic nerve function and the resulting diaphragm function. Stimulating the phrenic nerve with transcutaneous stimulation and directly observing the resulting movement of the hemidiaphragm with M-mode ultrasonography provides quantitative data for predicting the success of advancing technologies such as phrenic nerve pacing and diaphragm pacing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-143
Number of pages11
JournalPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015



  • Diaphragm pacing
  • Pediatric
  • Phrenic nerve pacing
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Ultrasonography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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